National Geographic News
Joshua trees grow among rock formations.

Joshua Tree National Park soon will share its California desert skies with a new close neighbor, a huge solar farm. It's part of a big renewable energy drive on public land.

Photograph by Bill Hatcher, National Geographic

Sam Pearson

For National Geographic

Published July 24, 2013

America's deserts are stark, quiet places, where isolation and the elements have long kept development at bay. To outsiders, these arid expanses may not seem like prized land.

But they are poised to play a key role—and perhaps, to serve as a battleground—in President Obama's plan to double U.S. electricity from wind, solar, and geothermal sources by 2020. To help ramp up that amount of clean energy, the White House has urged approval of an additional 10,000 megawatts of renewable energy production on public lands. (See related quiz: "What You Don't Know About Solar Energy.")

Estimates vary on exactly how many households would be served by the expansion, but the Obama Administration says the 25 utility-scale solar facilities, nine wind farms, and 11 geothermal plants it has approved on federal lands so far will provide enough juice to power 4.4 million homes. (See related story: "Mojave Mirrors: World's Largest Solar Energy Ready to Shine.")

One thing is for certain: The new drive for large-scale solar will require land. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) so far has issued permits or is conducting environmental reviews for solar, wind, and geothermal projects covering about 310,000 acres (125,450 hectares)—an area about the size of Wyoming's Grand Teton National Park. Many projects require that electric transmission lines be built over miles of open space to connect the remote renewable generating plants to the grid that serves population centers. (See related story: "Obama Unveils Climate Change Strategy.")

The administration generally wins plaudits from environmentalists for its effort to expand energy that doesn't belch smoke, cancer-causing chemicals, or heat-trapping carbon dioxide. But there is growing concern among a number of environmentalists, particularly in the West, about the impact on fragile ecosystems, plants, and animals. Some have filed lawsuits that could slow the effort to devote more public land to renewable energy.

"We need a new model for the way public lands are managed that recognizes we can't keep trying to divide the pie up between exploitation and preservation," said Janine Blaeloch, director of the Western Lands Project, a Seattle-based group that has filed a legal challenge to the program.

Renewables Drive

As Obama noted in his State of the Union address, renewable energy from sources like solar and wind doubled in his first term. Economic stimulus funding in 2009 made it easier for projects to take shape. Despite the enormous growth, though, fossil fuels still dominate. Together, wind, solar and geothermal energy accounted for just 2 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption in 2012, government data show.

"Using less dirty energy, transitioning to cleaner sources of energy, wasting less energy through our economy is where we need to go," Obama said at Georgetown University June 25, when he promised to issue enough permits to double the number of megawatts solar and wind projects generate on federal property. "And this plan will get us there faster."  (See related story: "Obama Pledges U.S. Action on Climate Change, With or Without Congress.")

The abundant sunlight in desert regions makes them some of the world's best locations for solar energy projects, and the nation's largest environmental groups were quick to praise the new climate initiative. The Natural Resources Defense Council released a study showing 210,000 jobs would be added by 2020, and that electric bills would be lower in 11 of 14 states it examined.  (See related: "10 Ways Obama Could Fight Climate Change.")

But the effort to devote large tracts of public land to renewable energy has not been trouble-free.

Combined with stimulus financing that came with strict deadlines to break ground, a land rush ensued—and regulations were sometimes slow to catch up. That led to speculative investments, lawsuits, canceled projects, and other complications.

David Lamfrom, a senior program manager for the National Parks Conservation Association who works in California's Mojave Desert, said a local dentist even submitted a development application in the initial frenzy.

"You can't make this stuff up," Lamfrom said.

Among the biggest flash points have been three projects located close to National Park land in the California desert.  (See related story: "California Tackles Climate Change, But Will Others Follow?")  One of those, a solar farm proposed near Death Valley National Park, was later abandoned by its bankrupt developer, Solar Millennium.

Another solar project, First Solar's Desert Sunlight near Joshua Tree National Park, now under construction, was scaled back to one-fifth of its originally proposed size, and special lighting technology is being implemented to preserve night sky views. The developer was required to retain BLM-approved biologists to monitor bird activity, including bird deaths from collisions with solar panels, according to the project's environmental impact statement.

But in recent weeks, an unanticipated environmental problem has surfaced at Desert Sunlight. More than a dozen migratory birds have been found dead, including water fowl that somehow landed at the desert construction site: an eared grebe, three brown pelicans, and an endangered Yuma clapper rail. Jane Hendron, a spokeswoman for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, said the developers wouldn't face any liability for the endangered animals' deaths.


Aerial photograph of First Solar Inc.'s Desert Sunlight Solar Farm in California's Mojave Desert
An aerial photo shows the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm in California, where bird deaths have created the need for closer monitoring of the farm's impact on wildlife.

Photograph by Tim Rue, Bloomberg/Getty Images

"We had not included it [in the company's permit] or addressed it, so there's no way the solar company would have known or would have been prescribed any action specifically," Hendron said.

She said the agency planned to begin monitoring the site and others more intensively to gather hard data on what might be confusing the birds. It's thought that the reflective panels could look like fresh water to the migrating waterfowl, Hendron said, but little hard science on the phenomenon exists.

"We have to make decisions based on the best available science," Hendron said. "But if you don't have the science, you can't just go out and make willy-nilly hypotheticals."

The third controversial project adjacent to parkland is set to open later this summer as the world's largest solar plant, a 3,500-acre development in the Ivanpah Valley at the California-Nevada border near Mojave National Preserve.

The Ivanpah developer, Oakland-based BrightSource Energy, ended up spending years and millions of dollars relocating desert tortoises found living on the site and had to suspend construction for months. The company says it has spent $22 million taking care of the animals, which the federal government classifies as a threatened species, and plans to spend as much as $34 million mitigating the plant's impact on their habitat.

Interior Secretary Sally Jewell visited the Ivanpah site, near Primm, Nevada, on July 1 and praised the developers as "pioneers."

Lamfrom uses a different word. "I call them dinosaurs," he said. In his view, under new standards the BLM has adopted to take into account the potential environmental impacts, the projects might not be approved today.

Solar Prize

The BLM has stressed that it works with local stakeholders and conservationists to mitigate projects' environmental impact. For example, in March, before the agency approved a 200-megawatt wind farm southeast of Las Vegas, it worked with Duke Energy's Searchlight Wind Energy to ensure that the project, though located on 9,300 acres, disturbed only 160 acres of land. A plan is being implemented at the site to protect bats and birds, and an ethnographic study is under way to protect cultural resources. Still, the Interior Department faces a lawsuit filed by Friends of Searchlight Desert and Mountains, who argue the plan threatens golden eagles and bald eagles that fish nearby in Lake Mojave, among other impacts.

Solar projects have become the biggest prize for developers as the BLM has worked to facilitate an "all-of-the-above" energy plan, a review of agency data shows. They produce more megawatts, in total, than wind or geothermal projects, on less land. They also will create about 50 percent more jobs, on average, than wind projects—at least according to claims made on permit applications.

But Lamfrom worries that the huge projects, if not properly managed, will spoil the desert's sweeping vistas and mar places like Mojave National Preserve and Joshua Tree and Death Valley national parks with thousands of reflective panels. The projects also can require the clearing of huge swaths of native grasses and cacti.

Some environmentalists believe their views were ignored by the administration years ago.

The move to increase solar permits "just shows the utter blindness that there is in the administration," said Blaeloch, of the Western Lands Project. "The 'all-of-the-above' approach—what kind of thing is that to say about what our energy policy is?" she said. "Let's be a little more discerning."

Tracts used by solar projects become "private industrial zones" that the public can't access, Blaeloch said, which is why her group and two others are suing the Interior Department in a bid to elicit changes to a key planning document released last year. The document established 17 solar energy zones, totaling nearly 300,000 acres, thought to provide the best conditions for plants with the least impact on the environment. But the document still would allow the BLM to approve projects on up to 19.3 million acres in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah—an area larger than the state of West Virginia—although permits would be harder to obtain than in the solar energy zones.

The goal, Blaeloch said, is to force the BLM to redo the document, called a Preliminary Environmental Impact Statement, to consider generating power from less-pristine sites. The Environmental Protection Agency does have an initiative to place renewable energy installations on old industrial and waste sites; the agency says installations generating more than 200 megawatts have already been placed on such sites, and it has an extensive list of contaminated sites that could be of use to renewable energy developers on its website. Blaeloch's group contends that significant BLM land is also scarred and similarly could be used for renewable energy projects. (See related video: "Toxic Land Generates Solar Energy.")

Blaeloch said she understands the threat of global warming but believes more drastic lifestyle changes will be needed than what the President's plan requires. Delicate public lands shouldn't be sacrificed, she said.

The deserts "are as rich as old-growth forests," Blaeloch said. "They may be a little harsher to be in and to walk in, but they have a huge amount of value to the planet and to species."

David Quick, a BLM spokesman, said in a statement that the agency's approval process takes into account the need to balance environmental concerns. The process "ensures opportunities for all interested parties and stakeholders to be engaged in the review process and identify mitigation alternatives and the appropriate siting of projects to avoid resource conflicts to the greatest extent possible," he said.

Bobby McEnaney, deputy director of the NRDC's Western Renewable Energy project, acknowledged that solar development can be challenging. Still, he said the group didn't think it was possible to generate enough energy to replace dirty fuels without some industrial-scale development. The NRDC is focused on making sure the administration's renewable energy program doesn't end when Obama leaves the White House, McEnaney said.

While he described others' misgivings as a "very legitimate concern," McEnaney said the BLM has existed historically to promote the use of public lands in addition to conserving them. With the growing threat of climate change, he said, "Unfortunately, we need it all."

Julie Falkner, a senior policy analyst for renewable energy at Defenders of Wildlife, is measured in her assessment of the Obama program, saying she believes the BLM has learned from past mistakes.

"There's an incredible value to having renewable energy go forward," she said. "At the same time, it shouldn't be done in a way that sacrifices the wildlife habitat that we've sought to protect over the last century."

Sam Pearson is a correspondent for The Center for Public Integrity, a nonprofit, independent investigative news outlet. Follow Center for Public Integrity on Twitter.  Follow Sam Pearson on Twitter.

This story is part of a special series that explores energy issues. For more, visit The Great Energy Challenge.



Peace Seeker
Peace Seeker

Give the gift of wisdom, hope and power. This documentary set explains how people like you and communities using renewable energy provide hope that we will achieve a sustainable future. Renewable energy sets the stage for a world where political and social autonomy is possible, energy crises are history, climate change is halted, and oil/nuclear war can be averted. See how it's possible to live an ethical existence today while providing hope for a better future for our children. Featured in this timely documentary are award-winning scientist and world-renowned environmentalist Dr. David Suzuki, Chris Turner author of the Geography of Hope, which is on the "Globe 100" list of the best books of the year, and Right Livelihood (the alternative Nobel prize) award-winner Dr. Hermann Scheer, the architect of the German Renewable Energy Act.

[ ]

Michael MacLean
Michael MacLean

Although the United States has consistently progressed in renewable energy generation, we are still missing an integral piece of the puzzle: widespread development of clean local energy markets, known as distributed generation (DG). This market segment has proven to be vital to the most successful renewable energy markets in the world.

Decentralized energy generation, known as DG, protects pristine environments and avoids the expensive and inefficient long-distance transmission of energy. Rather than streamlining the development of large-scale, remote renewable facilities, policymakers should expedite the development of DG .

DG facilities have no need for transmission infrastructure, since they connect directly to the distribution grid, close to where energy is used. This avoids exorbitant costs associated with the long-distance transmission of energy, which can comprise nearly 25 percent of the total price a consumer pays for energy. Also, since DG facilities are built on underused urban spaces and previously degraded land – such as parking lots, rooftops and abandoned industrial sites – distributed generation protects America's pristine environments.

The role of DG in the global renewable energy market is rapidly growing. In fact, Germany's solar market – the world's largest – is dominated by DG. Of all Germany's solar capacity, which is large enough to meet half the country's midday energy needs, 80 percent is on rooftops. DG, not large-scale generation, is powering Germany's solar success. Streamlining DG in the United States, which boasts significantly stronger renewable resources than Germany, will put the nation on a path towards a clean, secure energy supply, while also preserving the country’s beautiful, open spaces.

Vivian Fulk
Vivian Fulk

Look who is sponsoring this page! Shell! You are bought and paid for National Geographic! You used to be about science. SAD!

Global clean energy investment hit a record $260 billion in 2011. That's five times as much as 2004. The shift to clean energy is already happening.

Michael Davis
Michael Davis

This is a disgrace! Renewable Energy is not something that is done at the expense of the environment!

* Germany and Japan have led the world as renewable energy developers but they haven't permanently changed and ruined their lands to do it.

* Why is the drive to implement renewable energy taking precedent over PERMANENT environmental change?!

* Acres and acres and acres of pristine lands untouched by anyone but hikers are now being permanently changed: ~6 inches of the top of the desert land is being bulldozed smooth to enable installation of heat absorbing (and reflecting) panels to be permanently installed on the ground.

* The desert flora and fauna that have been so diligently protected since the beginning of time are suddenly now OK to ruin so we can have "clean energy"

* Do we KNOW what affect square miles of heat absorbing and reflecting panels will have on the land? The animals? And what about the weather changes due to this? What about the water run-off when it rains? 

* What about the natural beauty that is forever lost by the installation of these square miles of panels and towers and wind turbines?!

HOW GREAT OF AN EXPENSE ARE HUMANS WILLING TO PAY FOR ENERGY? Apparently THIS great of an expense. Permanent change of the land (and weather?) in the desert lands.

We will come to regret doing this but it cannot be un-done!

jim lowe
jim lowe

@Michael Davis these plans may be tuff on nature and we need to study it more but I think solar farms will reflect heat not collect it.that would be better to slow global warming that with the decreased use of fossil fuels sounds like a win to me.i just would want real environmental studies prior to approval.there may be other ways to secure energy on top of these that don't require burning stuff far as using this tech.on our own I would love to but haven't the money to finance my own panels or turbine.if so I would already have them.

Robert Rapier
Robert Rapier

@Michael Davis "Germany and Japan have led the world as renewable energy developers but they haven't permanently changed and ruined their lands to do it."

Sure they have. I have read many stories about Germans complaining over wind turbines marring their landscape. There have been lawsuits over it. As I always say, there is no free lunch. If we want energy, there are always costs associated with it -- even renewable energy.

Bob Strayer
Bob Strayer

@Michael Davis Everything is done at the expense of the environment. 

It would be preferable for everyone to put solar panels and wind turbines on their own, already developed property, but that is not going to happen. This is still better than burning coal, oil, and natural gas.

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