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Photo of a black cat named Mamba.

Although superstitions can be arbitrary—a fear of black cats, for example—"once they are in the culture, we tend to honor them."

Photograph by Joana Costa Nogueira, National Geographic Your Shot

Brian Handwerk

for National Geographic

Published June 12, 2014

This year's only Friday the 13th is upon us, and it's paired with a full moon to boot. The occasional calendar quirk has revived old fears of bad luck and calamities ranging from auto accidents to stock market crashes.

Experts say such fears are long ingrained in Western culture, and they've been amply reinforced by the slasher-flick franchise featuring everyone's favorite hockey-masked murderer Jason Voorhees. (Get more Friday the 13th facts.)

But take heart. Some research suggests you may actually be a bit safer on this ill-omened day. And superstitions, when not taken to extremes, can even give some believers a psychological boost.

Friday the 13th's mental benefits can include a sense of order, something that can be lacking in modern lives, said Rebecca Borah, a professor of English at the University of Cincinnati. Superstitions are attempts to understand and even control fate in an uncertain world. "When you have rules and you know how to play by them, it always seems a lot easier," she said. "If you have Dracula, you can pretty much figure out how to avoid him, or go out and get the garlic and be able to ward off evil. That's pretty comforting."

Friday the 13th can offer structure in a world where random and uncontrollable worries range from school shootings to extreme weather. "It's comforting in that we can sort of handle Friday the 13th," Borah added. "We don't do anything too scary today, or double check that there's enough gas in the car or whatever it might be. Some people may even stay at home—although statistically most accidents happen in the home, so that may not be the best strategy."

Fear Begets Fear

However, Stuart Vyse, a professor of psychology at Connecticut College in New London, pointed out that Friday the 13th certainly does have its dark side—even if we create it within our own minds.

"If nobody bothered to teach us about these negative taboo superstitions like Friday the 13th, we might in fact all be better off," he said in 2013.

People who harbor a Friday the 13th superstition might have triskaidekaphobia, or fear of the number 13, and often pass on their belief to their children, he noted. Popular culture's obsession with fear—think of those Friday the 13th horror films and even this story—helps keep it alive, added Vyse, the author of Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition.

Although superstitions can be arbitrary—a fear of ladders or black cats, for example—"once they are in the culture, we tend to honor them," said Thomas Gilovich, a professor of psychology at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.

"You feel like if you are going to ignore it, you are tempting fate," he explained in 2013.

Origins Rooted in Religion

The trepidation surrounding Friday the 13th is rooted in religious beliefs surrounding the 13th guest at the Last Supper—Judas, the apostle said to have betrayed Jesus—and the crucifixion of Jesus on a Friday, which was known as hangman's day and was already a source of anxiety, Vyse said. (Related: "Friday the 13th Superstitions Rooted in Bible and More.")

The two fears merged, resulting "in this sort of double whammy of 13 falling on an already nervous day," he said.

The taboo against the number 13 spread with Christianity and into non-Christian areas, noted Phillips Stevens, Jr., an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Buffalo in New York. "It became extremely widespread through the Euro-American world, embedded in culture, [and] extremely persistent," he said in 2013.

More interesting, he noted, is why people associate any Friday the 13th with bad luck. The answer, he said, has to do with what he calls principles of "magical thinking" found in cultures around the world.

One of these principles involves things or actions: If they "resemble other things in any way of resemblance—shape or sound or odor or color—people tend to think those things are related and in a causal way," he explained.

In this framework, there were 13 people present at the Last Supper, so anything connected to the number 13 is bad luck.

Numerology

Thomas Fernsler, an associate policy scientist in the Mathematics and Science Education Resource Center at the University of Delaware in Newark, said the number 13 suffers because of its position after 12.

According to Fernsler, numerologists consider 12 a "complete" number. There are 12 months in a year, 12 signs of the zodiac, 12 gods of Olympus, 12 labors of Hercules, 12 tribes of Israel, and 12 apostles of Jesus. (See "Lost Gospel Revealed; Says Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him.")

Fernsler said 13's association with bad luck "has to do with just being a little beyond completeness. The number becomes restless or squirmy," he said in 2013.

Then there's Friday. Not only was Christ crucified on that day, but some biblical scholars believe Eve tempted Adam with the forbidden fruit on a Friday. Perhaps most significant is a belief that Abel was slain by his brother Cain on Friday the 13th.

Negative Effects

On Friday the 13th, some people are so crippled by fear that they lock themselves inside; others have no choice but to grit their teeth and nervously get through the day.

Interestingly, they may actually encounter a slightly less dangerous world. A 2008 study by the Dutch Centre for Insurance Statistics revealed that fewer traffic accidents occur on a Friday the 13th than on other Fridays. Reports of fire and theft also dropped, the study found.

Nevertheless, many people will refuse to fly, buy a house, or act on a hot stock tip, inactions that noticeably slow economic activity, according to Donald Dossey, a folklore historian and founder of the Stress Management Center and Phobia Institute in Asheville, North Carolina. (Read about animal phobias.)

"It's been estimated that $800 or $900 million [U.S.] is lost in business on this day because people will not fly or do business they normally would do," he said in 2013.

To overcome the fear, Vyse said, people should take small steps outside their comfort zone. Those who are afraid to leave the house could consider meeting a close friend at a cozy cafe, for example.

"Try some small thing that they would be reluctant to do under normal circumstances and gradually experience, hopefully, no horrible thing happen when they push through and carry on," he said.

27 comments
Andre Situmorang
Andre Situmorang

Actually God creates all day, number, etc, in a good purpose.. So it doesnt matter if its friday 13th or whatver, its just an ordinary day and number.. Especially for me, 13 has its own attractiveness, seems like a cool number

Josh Beatty
Josh Beatty

I forgot yesterday was Friday the 13th until I saw a facebook post from a friend saying that his mother had just lost her battle with cancer. Shortly after that I saw a post from another friend saying that his girlfriend had that day lost her battle with cancer as well. I don't think these tragic events will turn me into a superstitious person. Rather, I think Friday the 13th will henceforth remind me of the fragility of life, and to not be afraid to live it.

Lloyd Christy
Lloyd Christy

I was born on Friday the 13th!!!  My mother never let me forget this!!!!!


Fabiano Attolini
Fabiano Attolini

Its fryday, its full moon and i have a black cat in my house.

How lucky i am?

Betty Dabney
Betty Dabney

Ahem, but I'm fairly certain that the Gregorian calendar had not been invented during the time of Adam and Eve or Cain and Abel.

Dan Comeau
Dan Comeau

So, theoretically, according to this article, every number other than 12 is unlucky, not simply the number 13.

Azure Saleh
Azure Saleh

13 is just a number...plain and simple..

Nicole Mercier
Nicole Mercier

You left out the part where both Friday and the number 13 are vilified as ways to undermine and even criminalize pagans and women in herbalism/witchcraft.  Oh My Freya.

Jana Stepanek
Jana Stepanek

interesting, although i am not superstitious, i find it kind of attractive, like a game with unexpected results.

Bradley Young
Bradley Young

didn't read the linked articles, but the 'real' (IMHO) reason that 13 was stigmatized was to move away from the Pagan method of tracking the year by 13 cycles of the moon (x28 days = 364) which has resulted in the masses being disconnected from the natural mechanisms of the cosmos, and adding dissonance to the natural rhythms of life...

pamela letstalkaboutcorsica
pamela letstalkaboutcorsica

amazing ! I feel quite to the contrary here, have always thought of it (if anything) as a lucky day, as I believe is the no. 13 too - (along with no.3) - why? maybe because they have always been positive for me personally and I tend to refuse the 'dark side' - interesting read about 'being after no. 12 ..' but, I'm not really convinced.

Ali J
Ali J

I'm surprised they didn't mention the fall of the Knights Templar at all!  Pretty much the entirety of that secret society was arrested on October 13th, 1309 - and that day just so happened to be a Friday.

James Lucier
James Lucier

I was raised a Christian.  Full moons and Fridays are just full moons and fridays...  I never got that whole  'be scared of ' BS. 

Joy Saldanha
Joy Saldanha

I do not even think about it. So its Friday, so its the 13th; so what?  j.e.s......

GM Weiss
GM Weiss

Like anti-Jewish sentiments, it's totally irrational to the non-Christian... maybe that's why both Friday (the Sabbath eve) & the number 13 (bar mitzvah year) in Judaism are viewed joyously in contrast to the religious justifications of the Gentile school advanced in this article.  

Joel Meizlik
Joel Meizlik

Ya learn something new every day.  so far, I have not been negatively affected by the Friday 13 date.  I always have done what I normally do  -----  nothing happens bad to me.  Elevators should restore the number 13 in counting floors.  It nothing happens either going up or going down, win-win situation.

Bill Wright
Bill Wright

The answer to the question  "why do we fear Friday the 13th?" is easy: ignorance and stupidity.

Michael Haskins
Michael Haskins

Unfortunately, humans have a tendency to believe the ridiculous. The capability of rational thinking is far too rare. Even idiots can reproduce.




Antonio Molines
Antonio Molines

@Azure Saleh yes Its just a number but its your opinion its just a number 4 u (and 4 me) but not 4 all." Its like the black cats r pretty " I personaly love them and I dont think I have bad luck but I cant say it or black cats r just cats

pam jean
pam jean

@Bradley Young i would like only 28 days in every month so it would be shorter months but a longer year with 13 months. it seems each month should have the same amount of days and i like 28, not 29, 30 or 31

pam jean
pam jean

@Bradley Young i think my body & spirit agree with this. maybe 13 was already vilified and/or they wanted an even number 12. i have thought the year was too short

Andy Willis
Andy Willis

@Ali J My point exactly. This is the true origin of the date. Not that some religious fanatic decided to ommit some fictional character from the bible. Sheesh 

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