National Geographic News
Photo of two pupils playing duets on the piano at school music lesson.

Musical training in childhood creates additional neural connections that can last a lifetime.

Photograph by Janine Wiedel Photolibrary/Alamy

Diane Cole

for National Geographic

Published January 3, 2014

Part of our weekly "In Focus" series—stepping back, looking closer.

Are music lessons the way to get smarter?

That's what a lot of parents (and experts) believe: Studying an instrument gives children an advantage in the development of their intellectual, perceptual, and cognitive skills. This may, however, turn out to be wishful thinking. Two new randomized trials have found no evidence for the belief. The IQs of preschoolers who attended several weeks of music classes as part of these studies did not differ significantly from the IQs of those who had not.

But that does not mean that the advantages of learning to play music are limited to expressing yourself, impressing friends, or just having fun. A growing number of studies show that music lessons in childhood can do something perhaps more valuable for the brain than childhood gains: provide benefits for the long run, as we age, in the form of an added defense against memory loss, cognitive decline, and diminished ability to distinguish consonants and spoken words.

Not only that, you may well get those benefits even if you haven't tickled the ivories, strummed the guitar, or unpacked your instrument from its case in years. And dividends could even be in store if you decide to pick up an instrument for the very first time in mid­life or beyond.

The reason is that musical training can have a "profound" and lasting impact on the brain, creating additional neural connections in childhood that can last a lifetime and thus help compensate for cognitive declines later in life, says neuropsychologist Brenda Hanna­-Pladdy of Emory University in Atlanta. Those many hours spent learning and practicing specific types of motor control and coordination (each finger on each hand doing something different, and for wind and brass instruments, also using your mouth and breathing), along with the music­-reading and listening skills that go into playing an instrument in youth, are all factors contributing to the brain boost that shows up later in life.

Musical Training Grows Your Brain

You can even map the impact of musical training on the brain: In a 2003 study, Harvard neurologist Gottfried Schlaug found that the brains of adult professional musicians had a larger volume of gray matter than the brains of non­musicians had. Schlaug and colleagues also found that after 15 months of musical training in early childhood, structural brain changes associated with motor and auditory improvements begin to appear.

Still other studies have shown an increase in the volume of white matter. Such findings speak to the brain's plasticity—its ability to change or adapt in response to experience, environment, or behavior. It also shows the power of musical training to enhance and build connections within the brain.

"What's unique about playing an instrument is that it requires a wide array of brain regions and cognitive functions to work together simultaneously, in both right and left hemispheres of the brain," says Alison Balbag, a professional harpist who began musical training at the age of five, holds a doctorate in music, and is currently earning her Ph.D. in gerontology (with a special focus on the impact of music on health throughout the life span) at the University of Southern California. Playing music may be an efficient way to stimulate the brain, she says, cutting across a broad swath of its regions and cognitive functions and with ripple effects through the decades.

The Longer You Played an Instrument, the Better

More research is showing this might well be the case. In Hanna­-Pladdy's first study on the subject, published in 2011, she divided 70 healthy adults between the ages of 60 and 83 into three groups: musicians who had studied an instrument for at least ten years, those who had played between one and nine years, and a control group who had never learned an instrument or how to read music. Then she had each of the subjects take a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests.

The group who had studied for at least ten years scored the highest in such areas as nonverbal and visuo­spatial memory, naming objects, and taking in and adapting new information. By contrast, those with no musical training performed least well, and those who had played between one and nine years were in the middle.

In other words, the more they had trained and played, the more benefit the participants had gained. But, intriguingly, they didn't lose all of the benefits even when they hadn't played music in decades.

Hanna-­Pladdy's second study, published in 2012, confirmed those findings and further suggested that starting musical training before the age of nine (which seems to be a critical developmental period) and keeping at it for ten years or more may yield the greatest benefits, such as increased verbal working memory, in later adulthood. That long-­term benefit does not depend on how much other education you received in life.

Photo of children playing instruments in a school orchestra.
Photograph by Paula Solloway, Alamy
Starting musical training before age nine and continuing for a decade may yield the greatest benefits.

"We found that the adults who benefited the most in older age were those with lower educational levels," she says. "[Musical training] could be making up for the lack of cognitive stimulation they had academically." She points to the important role music education can play, especially at a time when music curricula are falling prey to school system budget cuts.

Playing Music Improves Your Ability to Discern Sounds

Neuroscientist Nina Kraus of Northwestern University in Chicago found still more positive effects on older adults of early musical training—this time, in the realm of hearing and communication. She measured the electrical activity in the auditory brainstems of 44 adults, ages 55 to 76, as they responded to the synthesized speech syllable "da." Although none of the subjects had played a musical instrument in 40 years, those who had trained the longest—between four and fourteen years—responded the fastest.

That's significant, says Kraus, because hearing tends to decline as we age, including the ability to quickly and accurately discern consonants,­­ a skill crucial to understanding and participating in conversation.

"If your nervous system is not keeping up with the timing necessary for encoding consonants—did you say bill or pill or fill, or hat or that—even if the vowel part is understood," you will lose out on the flow and meaning of the conversation, says Kraus, and that can potentially lead to a downward spiral of feeling socially isolated.

The reason, she speculates, may be that musical training focuses on a very precise connection between sound and meaning. Students focus on the note on a page and the sound that it represents, on the ways sounds do (and don't) go together, on passages that are to be played with a specific emotion. In addition, they're using their motor system to create those sounds through their fingers.

"All of these relationships have to occur very precisely as you learn to play, and perhaps you carry that with you throughout your life," she says. The payoff is the ability to discern specific sounds—like syllables and words in conversation—with greater clarity.

There may be other potentially significant listening­ and hearing benefits in later life as well, she suspects, though she has not yet tested them. "Musicians throughout their lives, and as they age, hear better in noisy environments," she says. "Difficulty in hearing words against a noisy background is a common complaint among people as they get older."

In addition, the fact that musical training appears
 to enhance auditory working memory—needed to improvise, memorize, play in time, and tune your instrument—might help reinforce in later life the memory capacity that facilitates communication and conversation.

You Can Start Now

It's not too late to gain benefits even if you didn't take up an instrument until later in life. Jennifer Bugos, an assistant professor of music education at the University of South Florida, Tampa, studied the impact of individual piano instruction on adults between the ages of 60 and 85. After six months, those who had received piano lessons showed more robust gains in memory, verbal fluency, the speed at which they processed information, planning ability, and other cognitive functions, compared with those who had not received lessons.

More research on the subject is forthcoming from Bugos and from other researchers in what appears to be a burgeoning field. Hervé Platel, a professor of neuropsychology at the Université de Caen Basse-­Normandie, France, is embarking on a neuroimaging study of healthy, aging non­musicians just beginning to study a musical instrument.

And neuroscientist Julene Johnson, a professor at the Institute for Health and Aging at the University of California, San Francisco, is now investigating the possible cognitive, motor, and physical benefits garnered by older adults who begin singing in a choir after the age of 60. She'll also be looking the psycho­social and quality-of-life aspects.

"People often shy away from learning to play a musical instrument at a later age, but it's definitely possible to learn and play well into late adulthood," Bugos says.

Moreover, as a cognitive intervention to help aging adults preserve, and even build, skills, musical training holds real promise. "Musical training seems to have a beneficial impact at whatever age you start. It contains all the components of a cognitive training program that sometimes are overlooked, and just as we work out our bodies, we should work out our minds."

Sure, your friends might laugh when you sit down at the piano, but your brain may well have the last laugh.

Jay Maurice
Jay Maurice

Don't think we should forget that music is fun:) 

Ray Haynes
Ray Haynes

Anyone who can read on interpret a drum chart can certainly learn the saxophone at any age.

Eugene Cantera
Eugene Cantera

This is far better news than the typical "music makes you smarter at math" or "music makes you better at spatial reasoning for 11 minutes"  junk we've been fed for the past 10 years. Problem is, music educators (and colleges) have not capitalized on this information because it does little to "save the music" in schools.  It's shameful how we as a profession do not exist anywhere but in academia. It's time music educators become more entrepreneurial and create JOBS for teachers and at the same time provide fantastic centers for people of all ages to access within their community (the Dallas School of Music is a good example of such a place).  

Music is fun, it's a challenge, not everyone can be great at it but it sure is a joy to try. Find a good private teacher and take lessons, or go online - there are tons of sites that have fantastic resources with teachers ready to help and overflowing with information. is one such place and much of their info is free.

Thanks for a great article.

hossam hk
hossam hk

The music is everything that I love in my life..

play on piano makes you feel comfortable..

But unfortunately I do not have a piano In order to i feel comfortable..

i'm just play on PC keyboard Just to satisfy myself

hossam hk
hossam hk

The music is everything that I love in my life..

play on piano makes you feel comfortable..

But unfortunately I do not have a piano In order to i feel comfortable..

i'm just play on pc keyboard Just to satisfy myself

Brahmam Meka
Brahmam Meka

Really wonderful & useful information one should share for a cheerful old age . I should start some thing now atleast

Virginia Miralles
Virginia Miralles

These are wonderful news!  I'm a Principal at a very small Christian School in Panama and ever since we started this project, I decided to include Music in the curriculum.  The reason: I took some singing lessons and sang at the choir in College, and have always felt that the emotional rewards are great and now these findings add an extra plus.  Susan, I wish we were closer so that you could help us with your knowledge!

Susan Ciminelli
Susan Ciminelli

Some twenty years ago, my dad discussed with me, a music teacher, his reasons for valuing musical training. He reasoned that performing musically involved several senses simultaneously thus using more areas of the brain which required a stronger level of focus to perform and do so very well. So I enjoyed reading that Dad's theories have in fact been proven through this study. All the more reason why music programs are important for schools with high poverty populations! I'm now a principal and I'll be sure to share this with my colleagues!

A. Person
A. Person

I started playing the piano when I was four, and continued until I was eleven. I took a two year break, and started again at age thirteen. I have played for about 10 years now. I find it quite easy once you learn, and I noticed a difference in my brain when I took a break. Play a musical instrument!

Uffe Sommerlund
Uffe Sommerlund

@Virginia Miralles I hope you don't mind but I've got a gift for you regarding all kinds of aspect of music. Scale but not just some scale it would be like 1-3-2-4-3-5-4-6-5-7....7-5-6-4-5-3-4-2-1..... the other one is 1-3-1-4, 2-4 2-5, the first scale is oh oh o, and so on. if you want I can send them to you. 

the 2nd Scale is ah ah a, .....

send me a mail:

I can give you tools that will in a 6 month period get kids/adult to sing from chest voice the way we should, no money i just want to pass you on experience free as it was given to me.

Susan Ciminelli
Susan Ciminelli

@Virginia Miralles  If you are in Facebook or LinkedIn, distance doesn't have to be a problem.  For more on the Brain and impact of musical training there's this article on brain research from The Dana Foundation

I studied and was certified in a particular methodology for music education called Dalcroze Eurhythmics.  I taught children ages 5 to 12  and the other classroom teachers could see academic improvement in those who received this instruction five days/week.  For more about the Dalcroze method visit


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