National Geographic Daily News
Photo of red oak pollen.

An analysis of fossilized pollen particles found evidence of a succession of severe droughts over a 150-year period.

Photograph by Bob Sacha, Corbis

Roff Smith

for National Geographic

Published October 24, 2013

What happened about 3,200 years ago to bring about the collapse of not just one but a number of flourishing civilizations on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean?

A study of fossilized pollen particles taken from sediments at the bottom of the Sea of Galilee may have solved an intriguing historical mystery that has been troubling archaeologists for decades.

"In a short period of time, the entire world of the Bronze Age crumbled," says Israel Finkelstein, an archaeologist at the Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University, who was one of the lead scientists in the study.

"The Hittite Empire, Egypt of the pharaohs, the Mycenaean culture in Greece, the copper-producing kingdom located on the island of Cyprus, the great trade emporium of Ugarit on the Syrian coast, and the Canaanite city—states under Egyptian hegemony—all disappeared and only after a while were replaced by the territorial kingdoms of the Iron Age, including Israel and Judah."

Wars, pestilence, and sudden natural disasters have all been postulated as possible causes, but now, thanks to sophisticated pollen-sampling techniques and advances in radiocarbon dating, Finkelstein and his colleagues believe they know the primary culprit: drought, or rather a succession of severe droughts over a 150-year period from 1250 BCE to about 1100 BCE.

These fairly precise dates come from core samples drilled into the sediments at the bottom of the Sea of Galilee. The drill cores extended 18 meters into the seabed and cut across a range of sediments deposited over the past 9,000 years.

Pollen: "Fingerprints" of Plants

"We focused our study on the time interval between 3200 BCE and 500 BCE," says Dafna Langgut, a University of Tel Aviv palynologist (one who studies ancient pollens). She, along with Finkelstein and University of Bonn geology professor Thomas Litt, authored the study, which appeared this week in Tel Aviv: Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University.

By studying pollen samples taken at 40-year intervals, the scientists were able to monitor changes in the vegetation. "Pollen grains are the 'fingerprints' of plants," says Langgut. "They are extremely helpful in the reconstruction of ancient natural vegetation and past climate conditions."

The scientists noticed a sharp decline around 1250 BCE in oaks, pines, and carob trees—the traditional flora of the Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age—and an increase in the types of  plants usually found in semiarid desert regions. There was also a big drop in the number of olive trees, an indication that horticulture was on the wane. All are signs, say the researchers, that the region was in the grip of regular and sustained droughts.

Shortages and Unrest

The most crucial years of the collapse were probably between 1185 and 1130 BCE, says Finkelstein, but the entire process extended over a longer period of time.

"I think that climate change can be seen as a sort of a 'prime mover' that initiated other processes," says Finkelstein. "For example, groups of people in the northern regions were uprooted from their homes because of destruction of the agricultural output, and [they] started moving in search of food. They could have pushed other groups to move by land and sea. And this in turn caused destructions and disruption of the delicate trade system of the eastern Mediterranean."

The dates the researchers came up with via pollen analysis correspond nicely to the few remaining historical records of the period, which mention shortages of grain, disruption of trade routes, civil unrest, and pillaging of cities as people began to fight over diminishing resources. The Late Bronze Age was also a period when marauding bands known as the Sea Peoples raided coastal areas in the eastern Mediterranean.

The tumultuous period ended only when rains returned and uprooted groups began to settle down again.

21 comments
Dan Slaby
Dan Slaby

Several references on the impact of water on civilization:


Steven Soloman, "Water - the epic struggle for wealth, power and civilization"

Brian Fagan, "Elixier - a history of water and humankind"

Brian Fagan,"Floods, Famines and Emperors" 


Global warming is a recent phenomena caused by the Industrialization of production and the rapid release of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere in the past century. One of the features of regional drought and collapse of food production is the domino effect on trade and civilization. 


The problem with climate change deniers is that they will deny they ever had anything to do with creating the problem and blame it all on liberals and science. God, guns and gold, the hope for the hopeless. 

Perry Lee
Perry Lee

Do we see this repeating it self?

Tom Carberry
Tom Carberry

But what caused the drought?  This article doesn't get into it, but most of the ruins from the period of this drought show signs of massive fires.  Ancient religions and myths all talk about angry sky gods hurling destruction from above.


I think Immanuel Velikovsky got it mostly right in his Worlds in Collisions, and in his Ages in Chaos.  Some sort of massive disaster from the sky occurred, and wiped out most civilization and killed untold millions of people.


About 2 to 3 thousand BC (all dating methods leave a lot of room for error, unfortunately), the Sahara went from a lush and verdant place with many lakes, rivers, and streams, to today's massive desert.  This desertification hit not just north Africa, but went in a giant swath across the middle east almost as far as Beijing.


This video has fascinating information about the desertification of the Sahara and its prior status.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpVnVUQU_4g

Daniel Hendrick
Daniel Hendrick

The Ice Age is 80% and the warm age is 20% of prehistoric times - they should be fearing the Ice Age but that would say greenhouse emissions are good - who wants another Pleistocene with 20 degree drop in temperature for 200,000 years - I'm sure not the British they'll be Iceland.  Nobody has a scientifically based fear of the coming ice age which they should have. 

Parvez Abbasi
Parvez Abbasi

This theory fits in nicely with the coming of the Aryans in the  Indian subcontinent at around the same time.

Charon Caldwell
Charon Caldwell

Swiftright Wrong...does anyone else think he is nuts?

Tom Carberry
Tom Carberry

Much more than just drought occurred from about 4000 to 2000 BCE.  No one knows exactly what, but something truly terrible happened globally.  You can find many articles on the subject, but mostly piecemeal with no real attempt to bring them together other than the book Saharasia, by geographer James DeMeo, a great book I recommend to everyone.

What we today know as the Sahara Desert, just a few thousand years ago had lakes and rivers and many thousands of inhabitants.  All gone.  And whatever happened, it kept getting worse over time.  This massive drought spread from northwest Africa almost to Beijing.  Alexander marched to Persia with elephants, horses, and a massive army, on routes that camel caravans have a hard time with today.  These droughts led to massive wars and migrations.

And while the Middle East fried, the eastern coast of the Americas suffered massive flooding, remnants of which exist to this day in the form of the great swamp system that covers southeast North America.

Terrible consequences flowed from this environmental disaster.  Not only did civilizations collapse, but millions starved to death and humans did not recover from it, even to this day.

Our brains and bodies have shrunk.  The average human brain today measures well over 10% smaller than the average brain before agriculture.  Even in western societies, the average height of people still has not reached the average height of pre-agricultural humans.


Onkell C.
Onkell C.

being able to read...does'nt necessarily lead to Understanding..!!! I'm surprised when some readers stray in all directions...away from the subject..!! what does Ice Age or Global Warming have to do with a Regional Historical Drought..??

El Gabilon
El Gabilon

When climate change or catestrophic events take place that effect the human environment, humans take to violence, theft, etc.  Nothing has changed much since we see pillaging going on when a simple blackout occurs.  We see therefore that "civilization" is a very fragile concept that can fragment and bring abut chaos. Unless we make it stronger there can be no hope for a "happy" future.

Gordon Stogre
Gordon Stogre

What were the "few remaining historical records" referred to?

Swiftright Right
Swiftright Right

Climate change is a liberal myth, now bow down and worship Baal and you Assyrian masters.

William Cody
William Cody

Surprise, not a single mention of Global Warming causing this climate change, thanks to the smelting of bronze and it's emissions of CO2.

Pretty Stuff
Pretty Stuff

@Mike Brightbill Do you know when the last ice age was? Not 3200 years ago. Plus the during the last glacial maximum the ice sheets did not extend to the Mediterranean 

lari issakainen
lari issakainen

@Gordon Stogre Earliest cuneiforms were written in that era.Mostly catalogues and treatys of rulers, priests and merchants.What left of archives found from Ur, Babylon Etc. cities.

Robert P.
Robert P.

@Swiftright Right  

...brilliant insight, gleaned from your deep introspective worship of the 'Limbaugh' deity.

RC Lee
RC Lee

@William Cody Not sure what your point is? Global warming or cooling can obviously cause the climate to change. 

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