National Geographic News
A cast-iron cannon from Blackbeard's ship, Queen Anne's Revenge.

A cast-iron cannon from Blackbeard's ship, Queen Anne's Revenge.

Photograph by Robert R. Clark, National Geographic

Willie Drye in Plymouth, North Carolina

for National Geographic News

Published August 29, 2011

After 15 years of uncertainty, a shipwreck off the coast of North Carolina has been confirmed as that of the infamous 18th-century pirate Blackbeard, state officials say.

The Queen Anne's Revenge grounded on a sandbar near Beaufort (see map) in 1718, nine years after the town had been established. Blackbeard and his crew abandoned the ship and survived.

Until recently, the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources emphasized that the wreck, discovered in 1995, was "thought to be" the Queen Anne's Revenge.

Now, after a comprehensive review of the evidence, those same officials are sure it's the ship sailed by one of history's fiercest and most colorful pirates.

"There was not one aha moment," said Claire Aubel, public relations coordinator for the North Carolina Maritime Museums. "There was a collection of moments and a deduction based on the evidence."

There were two main reasons for the team's certainty, Aubel said: the sheer size of the wreck and the many weapons that were found in the rubble.

(Related: "Pictures: Blackbeard's Ship Yields Ornamental Sword.")

No other ship as big as the Queen Anne's Revenge was known to have been in the area at the time, and a pirate ship would have been well armed, she said.

Shipwreck Loot Points to Blackbeard

Blackbeard achieved his infamous immortality in only a few years, operating in the Caribbean Sea and off the coast of colonial America before being killed in a battle with British ships in North Carolina's Pamlico Sound in 1718. (Also see "Grim Life Cursed Real Pirates of Caribbean.")

Some historians have speculated that he deliberately ran the Queen Anne's Revenge aground so that he could keep the most valuable plunder for himself.

Such loot has helped archaeologists link the wreck to Blackbeard since excavations started in 1997. Among the major recovered artifacts are:

—Apothecary weights stamped with tiny fleurs-de-lis, royal symbols of 18th-century France. Queen Anne's Revenge was actually a former French ship, Le Concorde, captured by Blackbeard in 1717. He forced Le Concorde's surgeon to join the pirate crew, and a surgeon at that time likely would have had apothecary weights.

—A small amount of gold found among lead shot. Archaeologists think a French crewman might have hidden the gold in a barrel of shot to conceal it from Blackbeard's pirates.

—A bell engraved with the date 1705.

(Related: exclusive pictures of Blackbeard pirate relics and gold.)

ID of Blackbeard's Ship Never Really in Doubt

The disclaimer about the wreck's identity was more an acknowledgement of the strict code of scientific scrutiny than the result of any serious doubts about the ship's identity, said Erik Goldstein, curator of arts and numismatics—the study of coins and tokens—for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in Virginia. Archaeologists working on the wreck were always sure of its identity.

State officials "were just being safe," Goldstein said. "At the beginning phase of an excavation, unless you find something like a ship's bell with the name engraved on it, it takes a little while to put the pieces together and gather documentary evidence. It was good, responsible behavior on the part of those folks."

There were two reasons for dropping the official doubt about the identity of the shipwreck, added David Moore, curator of nautical archaeology at the North Carolina Maritime Museum in Beaufort.

First, the museum recently opened "Blackbeard's Queen Anne's Revenge," a greatly expanded exhibit of artifacts from the shipwreck. Had the confirmation of the ship's identity not been made, curators would have had to title the exhibition something like "Artifacts From the Purported Queen Anne's Revenge," Moore said.

Also, removing the official caveat could help the museum secure private funding to continue excavating the wreck, Moore said. Although the state legislature provides some funding, he said, tight budgets are cutting into that money.

David Hollins
David Hollins

Unfortunately, a nasty case of "Ruling Theories Linger" - an article in the IJNA 34/1 (2005), which raises a series of questions that the proponents have failed to answer, notably about the age of the wood, the cannon with a possible date of 1730 and the depth of the wreck. The last two paragraphs sum up the reality - no Blackbeard = no money. Unfortunate that research has come to this, but Yanks, eh?

Patt Gavin
Patt Gavin

@David Hollins After reading the IJNA article, I have to wonder if the "Ruling Theory" applies to those who found the wreckage or those writing the article.  While it is undoubtedly true that a 100% verification of the site will never be possible, it seems that a preponderance of evidence indicates that it could well be Blackbeard's ship.  Lusardi seems to be grasping at straws in an attempt to discredit the findings without any better information at his disposal.  Take, for example, his discussions of the manner in which the ship was built and how English ships did not use these particular building mechanisms until a later period.  This is ignoring what he states later, namely that the ship was built in France.  Yet he never mentions French ship building practices; only English.

I can't say the wreckage is or is not the Queen Anne's Revenge but I don't think one voice of opposition is enough to establish legitimacy.  Given that the article was written ten years ago, it would be helpful to see an update now that the majority of the ship has been excavated.   

Deborah Stephenson
Deborah Stephenson

@David Hollins 

I am a "Yank", but I also find the justifications cited in the last 2 paragraphs dubious. Not all of us think money is more important than good science.


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