On his first official trip to China in 2006, NASA head Mike Griffin said the U.S. agency is "still unable to cooperate with [China's] military-based space program" and that his visit focused on the civilian side of the program.
"If China and the United States were to cooperate in the arena of manned space flight, that would be well down the road," Griffin said.
Gregory Kulacki, an expert on China's space industry who works for the U.S.-based Union of Concerned Scientists, said China's shift away from military control of space endeavors could lead to greater cooperation with the U.S. in future joint missions.
That transition may already be underway: A launch site under construction on the island of Hainan will be operated by the China National Space Administration. The country's three other launch centers are run by the People's Liberation Army.
Still, in a report this year, Pentagon scholars noted that China had successfully tested an anti-satellite missile against one of its own weather satellites, "demonstrating its ability to attack satellites in low-Earth orbit."
China views its space capabilities as "bolstering national prestige and, like nuclear weapons, demonstrating the attributes of a world power," according to the report.
"Reach Into the Cosmos"
Jim Burke helped design the earliest U.S. moon missions as project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California.
He said attempts to portray China as a potential rival military and space superpower are misguided, and that the Cold War space race between the United States and the Soviet Union was a peaceful competition that spurred innovation.
It was "the heyday of lunar rocketry—a brief, splendid episode in humanity's reach into the cosmos," said Burke, now a scholar at the International Space University in France.
John Pike, founder of the space-watching think tank www.globalsecurity.org, said the future of American-Chinese cooperation in space remains under a cloud.
"Apprehensions about espionage from both sides are going to be hard to overcome," he said.
Next Stop: Mars
While it remains unclear whether the United States and China will race to the moon as partners or competitors, the two countries have similar interests there.
"The moon, with deposits of helium-3, could hold one of the keys to solving Earth's energy problems," according to Chinese space official Zhang.
Helium-3 is a lightweight form of helium gas that is extremely valuable as a potential source of nuclear-fusion power. NASA scientists also have their eyes on the possible energy source.
Moon missions also are seen as a technological testing ground that would provide useful experience for humans to explore the rest of the solar system.
Peng Jing is an aerospace engineer at the China Academy of Space Technology in Beijing.
Peng said that while China's successful space program is building support for a lunar touchdown, the moon is only an interim target.
"After human missions to the moon," he said, "China will consider human flights to Mars."
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