National Geographic News
Frenchmen Albert Fert and German Peter Grünberg have won the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the phenomenon that makes modern-day hard-drive technology possible.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences today announced that the two scientists will equally split the prize "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance [GMR]," which amplifies small magnetic changes into large electrical signals.
The discovery has made possible the massive hard drives used in modern computers, cell phones, and music players, which store data magnetically.
"The practical benefits of this physics could not be greater," said Phillip Schewe, a spokesperson for the American Institute of Physics. "GMR is at the heart of the multi-billion-dollar hard-drive industry."
"This discovery played a key role in the phenomenal increase in storage capacity and reduction in size of magnetic recording systems that are the essential components of modern consumer products such as iPods and computers," added S.A. Solin, a professor of physics at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.
In the prize announcement, the Royal Swedish Academy also said that "GMR can also be considered one of the first real applications of the promising field of nanotechnology."
Hard drives store data by magnetizing extremely small sections of material, similar to how VCRs and tape recorders work. But as more data is stored in the same amount of space, the magnetic signals get weaker.
This fact limited hard drive capacities until Fert, of the Université Paris-Sud in Orsay, France, and Grünberg, of Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany, independently came across giant magnetoresistance in 1988.
The effect is a far better method for reading stored data, and the first GMR-based hard disks were created less than a decade later.
The scientists uncovered the phenomenon while studying the exact properties of extremely thin stacks of metal.
At just a few atoms thick, the layers were expected to experience unusual quantum effects. Fert and Grünberg found this included magnifying very weak magnetic changes into major differences in electrical conductivity.
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