However, birds, fish, and mammals that travel together in large numbers tend to be crowded together, which means individuals can only see the animals closest to them. This means they must make collective decisions on which direction to take, otherwise they risk never reaching the desired destination.
Disunity can also prove fatalwildebeests or caribou that stray away from the main herd are far more likely to fall victim to lions or wolves.
Using computer simulations, the study team found that group coordination arises from two factors: the need for a group to stick together and the desire of some individuals to make their own minds up about where to go.
The researchers first programmed their virtual animals with a basic urge to stick as close together as possible without actually colliding. This instinct caused animals to form close-knit, evenly spaced groups, as seen in real mammal herds and fish schools.
Some animals were then programmed to have a preferred direction in mind, as if on a migration route or heading toward a particular feeding area. These animals' desire to reach their goal was then balanced with an urge to stay with the main group.
During these simulations, the researchers found that it needed only a few individuals to set off together in a certain direction for hundreds of others to follow.
The study suggested that just a handful of animals were as effective in leading a large group as a small one. And as group size increased, the number of individuals needed to guide it accurately reduced dramatically.
"When you see apparently complex behaviors, the mechanisms that coordinate these behaviors may be surprisingly simple," said lead author Iain Couzin, also of Princeton.
The study also suggested that the will of the majority won out when deciding which way to turn next. When subgroups of animals with different ideas on where they were headed were introduced to the simulations, the overall group went with the majority consensus, even if it outnumbered the minority by just a single vote.
Couzin said, "The direction an informed individual decides to take lies in a balance between two influences: the desire to achieve a goal such as reaching a known food source, and the interaction with the animals around them."
He said such a system can also help us understand human behavior, adding, "This even applies to the pedestrian walking down the street, who automatically balances the desire to follow the quickest route to a chosen destination with local conditions caused by the movement and position of other pedestrians around them."
Couzin said computer models allow us to better understand the processes that determine group movement. The models may also lead to a new breed of robots designed to work together to explore deep-sea regions or even distant planets.
"They could select collectively the direction associated with the best-quality information or select collectively the majority direction," he added. So while the mechanism behind it might be simple, the flocking behavior of those starlings isn't just a wonderful sight. It could help shape the way we explore space.
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