for National Geographic News
Global thirst for crude oil keeps growing, despite the current high prices. Just how much oil does the world have left, and what will happen when demand begins to outstrip supply?
Last month the Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA) released its World Energy Outlook 2004, a report detailing energy projections to 2030.
The outlook's central message was optimistic. "The Earth contains more than enough energy resources to meet demand for many decades to come," Claude Mandil, IEA's executive director, told assembled press. "The world is not running out of oil just yet."
However, Mandil also called for urgent policy responses to meet rising energy demand around the world and continued reliance on fossil fuelsissues he labeled "deeply troubling."
Some experts express even greater concern than Mandil and caution that oil may run short much sooner than the IEA forecasts.
How Much Is Left?
Robert Kaufmann, a professor at Boston University's Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, said that it is difficult to estimate global oil reserves because data is not always reliable.
"In the U.S. we have very strict requirements for what's considered a proven reserve," he said. Such regulation is partially driven by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the federal market regulator, because the value of oil-related stocks depends largely on how much oil remains in the ground.
"A lot of the countries on whom we depend [for oil], like Saudi Arabia and Mexico, don't have strict standards for proven reserves," Kaufmann said. "Government-owned industries don't have to satisfy an SEC, and you can't blame them for not wanting to make that knowledge public. That makes a statistical analysis of the data difficult."
The IEA has also recognized the problem and called for new, universal standards to estimate reserves.
Without solid data, forecasts range substantially. And Dan Butler, a market analyst with the U.S. Energy Information Administration, notes that improving technologies can squeeze more oil out of existing reserves. "It's still a true statement that when you find oil you end up getting only 30 to 35 percent of that oil out of the hole," he said. "If improving technologies can add another percent to that on a worldwide basis, that's a big number. That's a significant number of barrels. We're clearly not in the park of those that say this decade could see the peak of oil."
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