for National Geographic News
For mycophileshunters of wild, edible mushroomsautumn is high time to don rubber boots, grab a penknife, and head outdoors.
"People in certain parts of Europe just love to go out when the mushrooms are out. They are really comfortable doing that, and they have knowledge about which ones they can eat," said Rytas Vilgalys, a biologist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.
Other cultures in the world are more wary when it comes to mushrooms, knowing that while some can certainly give a pasta sauce zest or tastefully garnish a piece of meat, others can just as easily kill with toxic poisons.
Vilgalys is part of a consortium of university scientists who aim, in part, to help sort out which mushrooms are safe to eat and which are best avoided.
The task is daunting. Mushrooms, along with molds, yeasts, lichens, and puffballs (which discharge spores in a smokelike cloud when pressed or struck) are all fungi. Scientists have identified about 80,000 species of fungi, a tiny fraction of the estimated 1.5 million.
In recent years scientists have published descriptions of thousands of species new to science in journals like Mycotaxon and Mycologia. But it was not until the advent of molecular systematicsusing DNA to identify organismsin the late 1980s that scientists began to see distinctions between structurally similar organisms.
In 2003 Vilgalys and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Oregon State University, and Clark University began collaborating on the National Science Foundation-funded Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life project.
The project uses molecular systematic methods in addition to traditional identification based on morphologythe form and structure of the organism. The project aims to significantly increase understanding of the evolution of the fungi, which has implications ranging from understanding how ecosystems function to discovering new drugs. It will also help scientists discover even more new species.
"One goal is to make sure we have all the data on the ones we know and then use that as a tool to assess what are the groups we don't know," Vilgalys said.
Fungi, according to the Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life consortium scientists, are of much useand abuseto humans and thus warrant a deeper understanding. Fungi cause diseases and cure diseases; they help make beer and bread; they play a role in indigenous cultures; and they provide a range of ecological services.
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