High-Climbing Ice Expert Gets to Core of Climate Change

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How many people will still travel to the mountain if the glaciers are gone? I don't think anyone really knows the answer to that—but we may find out sooner than we thought.

I actually believe the glaciers could be gone before 2020, mainly because in the past the ice lost most of its mass from sublimation—the process of changing from a solid to a gas. Sublimation actually requires about seven and a half times as much energy as melting the ice requires. Yet we have photos … taken last summer that indicate that the ice is melting on Furtwangler Glacier at the summit of Kilimanjaro due to increasing temperatures and solar radiation-induced melting.

Even with all the tourists who visit the mountain, no one has documented this before.

Disputes are common in the academic community, and global warming has been a hot topic. Do you encounter a lot of resistance to your work?

Global warming is not as controversial as some people would like you to think. The people who actually study global warming agree that the climate is changing, partially due to human activity on the planet. When you consider the evidence, global warming is not something you necessarily have to go out and try to sell, even to critics.

What we do as scientists is look at what is and what has been. If you get the science right, the system plays out, and it's just a matter of time before everyone will realize that we do have to do something about this if we want to maintain the type of civilization we live in.

If global warming is a reality, why aren't people doing more about it?

Whether or not people do something about global warming is more of a human nature issue than a political issue. If you look at human behavior, we tend to deal better with crises then to proactively change before the situation escalates to an emergency. But if there's no choice, humans are capable of huge changes.

Here in Ohio we have the Cuyahoga River that everyone knew was polluted. But it wasn't until it caught on fire that people realized, Hey, this is a crisis, and we probably ought to do something about it.

Now the river's been cleaned up, so that even walleye, pike, and game fish can live in it. It wasn't that we couldn't take care of the problem sooner. It was that we didn't have to do it sooner.

With global warming, we're not quite to the point where the general population's lifestyle is about to be altered.

Your expeditions are for work, not recreation. But do you ever have fun on a climb?

There's certainly a lot of joy that comes from just being out in the natural world. But I don't understand the drive of some people—like mountain climbers who look for the most difficult way to get up to the top. I'm looking for the easiest, safest way to get up to where we need to drill.

I have asthma, which sometimes makes breathing the thin air more difficult. I would not do the climb just for the excitement, the thrill, and the danger associated with it, even though I do understand the sense of accomplishment once you're standing on top of one of these great mountain ranges.

Where do you store the ice cores you've collected over the course of your research?

Over the past 20 years we have built a 2,100-square-foot (195-square-meter) storage facility at Ohio State. We have two storage rooms [kept] at between –30° Celsius and –35° Celsius [–22° and –31° Fahrenheit].

About 7,000 meters (22,966 feet) of core are stored there.

Each room has an alarm system built into it, so if the temperatures go outside of the five-degree range, an alarm goes off. We have people at the OSU environmental control center who monitor all the environmentally sensitive facilities on campus 24 hours a day.

Why is storing the ice so important?

The thing that's very clear to us—and we didn't realize this in the beginning—is that we need to keep an archive of ice like that of Kilimanjaro. We do it for other groups to sample and for the future. Because it's clear that in as few as 15 years, you will not be able to go out into the real world to recover that record.

We know that our science and technology will increase. But we need samples to study.

Glaciers serve as the canaries in the coal mine. I grew up in West Virginia, where coal mining was an important part of the state's economy. Coal miners would take canaries down in a cage. If the canary died, they would get out of the mine, because it meant methane gas was building up in the system.

These tropical glaciers are an early-warning system for the climate of the Earth. We need to record the past, then preserve that record for the future, so we can understand what's happening.

Is it true that a team member once became temporarily blinded on a high-altitude expedition?

We had a fellow, Dave Chadwell, who was a surveyor on five expeditions. On his sixth, when we went up to a high elevation in the Andes in Peru, I noticed he was straggling behind.

When I went down to check on him, I found out that about every 2 minutes and 15 seconds he'd lose his eyesight. All he saw was white.

We took him back to the base camp, pressurized him. After about an hour and a half, he was fine in the pressurized system. But when we took him out, the cycle came back. He got checked out by a doctor in the U.S., but he couldn't find any problems.

The following year [Dave] asked again to go on the expedition to the ice fields of the Cordillera Blanca in Peru. The same thing happened, so we sent him back home. He went on to get his Ph.D. and now studies at sea level out at Scripps [Institution of Oceanography], but he really loved the expeditions.

We check with our high-altitude medical doctor Peter Hackett before we go out on expeditions. But the fact is that medical cases are done on a statistical basis. There aren't that many people who go to high elevations and very few who actually spend a significant amount of time at high elevations.

We go up and actually live there, whereas mountaineers come back down. We're kind of pushing the envelope of understanding how humans respond to high elevation.

What is one of the most important lessons you've learned?

After having worked in some 15 countries around the world, we understand that we live in a world that is interconnected. We all need to make an effort to understand the cultures of the world, because what one group does affects the others.

We all can work together to accomplish a mission under very difficult circumstances, and this is something we really need to do in the 21st century.

To read about Lonnie Thompson's research expedition to Alaska's Bona-Churchill glacier, pick up the August 2004 issue of National Geographic Adventure magazine.

For more global warming news, scroll down.

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