Studying the 13 morphologically distinct Moringa species fueled his passion for the bizarre plant forms found only in remote non-rain forest tropical landscapes. He also discovered that some Moringa species were essentially lost to science. One, Moringa arborea, had been seen just twice.
The Long-Lost, the Living Dead
In 1998, thanks in part to a grant from the National Geographic Society Committee for Research and Exploration, Olson traveled to the Mandera District in extreme northeast Kenyathen a dangerous no-man's-land where Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia intersectto search for this lost species. Adding to his difficulties, previous botanists had identified only a single M. arborea tree. At the time, it didn't have any leaves.
"I was thinking, How am I going to find this single tree?" Olson recalled. "Usually [plants] grow in populations. Occasionally a seed will get blown off or a plant will establish and grow way out from [the others] and the real population was for me unknown."
Olson was lucky. In a small limestone canyon, near where the M. arborea was first discovered, he came upon a whole population in full bloom. He collected a couple of seedlings. "I took one back to St. Louis, where it's made plenty of leaves," he said.
In Madagascar, Olson was less fortunate. Along the island's west coast, local people plant the massive, 60-foot-tall (18-meter-tall) Moringa hildebrandtii ceremoniallyoften near gravesites. Wild populations were unknown, but were thought to exist on the island's central west coast.
Olson and a Malagasy colleague searched in vain for wild M. hildebrandtii. "We suspect that what has happened is it's been reduced to a very tiny population or it was extirpated from the wild a long time ago," he said.
"It's been preserved in indigenous horticulture but not in the wild," he said. "So it's sort of a living dead species. We don't know where it's from really. We don't know what its interactions were."
Pedilanthus and People
In Mexico, Olson has had similar mixed results searching for lost slipper spurges, or Pedilanthus, a genus of small leafy shrubs and trees with flower clusters that resemble everything from shoes to ducks. Mexico is slipper spurge central, the only country where all 15 or so species are found. For the last year and a half, Olson has (again with National Geographic Society funding) scoured the country from Baja California to Yucatán to the Guatemalan border.
Pedilanthus pulchellus was first described in 1917 growing on a single mountain, Cerro Espino, in southern Oaxaca. "[We] reasoned it had to be on the very highest peak of this one mountain," Olson said.
"We made the ascent and there it was, growing right on top of the mountain as it has been since 1917, the last time it had been seen. And [it was] just [because] no one had ever climbed the mountain again." Olson has since recommended conservation measures to protect this rare microendemic plant.
For another slipper spurge, Pedilanthus tomentellus, it's probably too late. Known since pre-Columbian times for its yellow latex and laxative properties, P. tomentellus is grown ornamentally and in herbarium collections.
It was seen growing wild as late as the mid-1980s. "When you go back the people remember it being there," Olson said. People who recall the plant tell him they ripped it up to sow corn. "You're getting there at the moment of extinction, because it is still living in people's memories. But the plants aren't there anymore. It's gone from the wild."
Such ghost plants, which survive only in cultivation, make Olson wonder about other species yet to be discovered. " That's sort of the cruel joke of being a biologist," he said. " [Plants are] disappearing very rapidly that's what's going on."
"A lot of people don't realize that where they live is actually very, very special," he said. "And that's something we always try to tell people in the field." With biologists like Olson continuing the search for lost species, perhaps more people will find that plants also deserve their place in the world.
For more on Mark Olson and plants, scroll down for related stories and links.
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