Philip Brownell, a professor of zoology at Oregon State University, has studied the metabolism adaptations that make scorpions stand out in the animal kingdom. "John Lighton [of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas] and I measured their basic metabolic rate," he said, "and found it's right down there with ticks, which hang on branches for a year and don't see food. Scorpions have the same rate per body mass."
Scorpions are members of the class Arachnida that includes spiders, mites, and ticks.
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Their metabolic ability allows them, in extreme conditions, to "hunker down" in burrows using little oxygen and requiring few food resources. The animals can quickly switch from this mode to one of active hunting when conditions become more favorable.
"It's a bunker-mentality approach to living, pushed apparently to the extreme," Brownell said. "They can't compete on the surface so they hang out in areas where the conditions are extreme and come up at night when other predators have gone."
These metabolic abilities have led to interesting times in the lab. "We've had the experience of losing one in the lab, or forgetting one in a jar, and finding it six months later perfectly alive," Brownell recalled. "How do they do it? Ticks let themselves degenerate, atrophy; scorpions don't do that. They can immediately become predators. They have the ability to shut it on and off; that's the key."
Scorpions hibernate in times of extreme cold, which allows Asian species to live as far north as nearly 50 degrees latitude. "That's under snow a good four months a year," said Fet. "There's no way they are active there in cold weather, but they hibernate, and do this even in Asian deserts where it becomes very cold."
Brownell has frozen scorpions in his research, only to place them in the sun the next day and watch them thaw out and walk away.
The animals' northern boundaries are defined not by cold, but by substrate. When the soil surface is an area where they cannot burrow, such as frozen ground or even prairie grass, it becomes uninhabitable.
Of the nearly 2,000 scorpion species, only perhaps 30 or 40 are toxic enough to kill a human. All species do have the poisonous gland on the end of their tail, for stinging prey, but not all use it in the same way. The reason could be an example of evolution at work.
"They really haven't changed much since they came out of the ocean hundreds of millions of years ago," Brownell said. "It may be that a new species evolves when they develop a new venom that's particularly good at killing a prey, or providing a nasty defense for anything that might try to eat it."
One clue to such evolution is the presence of mammal-specific venoms, perhaps a result of the rise of mammals with which many scorpions shared burrows. "From the scorpion viewpoint, mammals are yesterday's upstarts," said Fet. "I think that highly potent, mammal-specific venoms appeared when there was a high selective pressure for killing mammalsbecause most rodents can eat them."
Researchers speculate that ongoing evolution may mean that some species are in the process of losing venom that they rarely use. "If we look carefully, we do have some scorpions which are probably essentially in the process of losing venom," said Fet.
To determine which ones, look for the claw-like pincers. As a rule of thumb, scorpions with huge pincers are not toxic; those with small pincers are. Those with large pincers use them to catch and crush prey, and many have tails that are so small that stinging is difficult. "These species rarely sting," Fet said. "Why should they? They live in burrows where predators can't reach them and their pincers are large and strong enough to smash prey. They could eventually lose the whole tail and venom apparatus."
Other species, which use the venom as a defense, retain potent stinging power and are responsible for human deaths each year. Still, the risks are small, and the animal deserves respect for more than its venom.
"This animal is so scary to people," Brownell said. "But if they can get beyond that sting it's just an incredible machine for doing what it does."
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