Throughout the century a litany of songcatchers spanned peoples and places nearly as colorful and diverse as song itself. Hungarian Béla Bartók collected central European folk music. The energetic Percy Grainger did the same in England, then traveled further afield to Australia, New Zealand, and the South Seas.
The Fahnestock brothers, Bruce and Sheridan, sailed the South Seas on a musical quest that with the approach of war added a political bendthey secretly gathered intelligence for U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. New York radio broadcaster Henrietta Yurchenco traveled to Mexico and unknowingly embarked on over six decades of ongoing ethnomusicology fieldwork.
For Yurchenco, it was crucial that the voice of the people be heard. "We have a written history," she told Nationalgeographic.com. "We have books for political history, the formation of nations and social struggles. But music is one of the most intimate expressions. Through music you become knowledgeable of the intimate aspects of life that aren't told in books. The people themselves tell you their storiesit's not an interpretation. History books are written by the victors, but songs are the people's own words."
Older Recordings In a "Race Against Time"
The task of archiving this enormous musical heritage is a daunting one that's nearly as old as field recording itself.
But while conservation of natural treasures, historic sites, and ancient artifacts is a hot topicthat of our aural heritage is not as widely celebrated. The preservation of these recordings is dependent upon coordinated action.
The early media, and even some of the not-so-early ones, are decaying. Recordings on tinfoil, wax, glass, acetate, and vinyl have one thing in commonnone is permanent. Currently, institutions around the world are in a race against time to convert these priceless recordings to the digital medium where they might be preserved indefinitely. They must be transferred if the incredible efforts of many lifetimes are not to be lostjust when we may have the technology to ensure their indefinite survival.
Michael Taft is the coordinator of the Save our Sounds program a joint project between the Smithsonian Institution and the Library of Congress. The project strives to preserve recordings and expand their audience by releasing them to the public. "The mission is to save in perpetuity the sounds that have been collected over the last hundred years," he said. "If we don't do something, we won't have those sounds in another hundred years. None of the formats we have were meant to last forever."
Many other institutions, worldwide, are in the same race against time and the elements (see sidebar).
As an ethnomusicology advocate, Mickey Hart is involved with the Library of Congress Endangered Music Project as well as the National Recording Preservation Board. "Triage is a great word for the state of the Endangered Music Project," he told National Geographic News. "We can never win this race; these musics are being lost daily. Hourly. They're decomposing and all kinds of gremlins are popping up. But there's a dedicated staff of preservationists at work all day at the Library of Congress and other places around the world. They are passionate, and they are committed to this because it's critically important."
The importance lies not just with preserving the past, but keeping that heritage alive and available to inspire future generations.
"We're the first generation that's really capable of saving this music forever," Hart said. "It's an opportunity and it's also a serious responsibility. Future generations will hold us responsible for what we do or do not do as far as preserving these treasures."
Related Web sites:
Mickey Hart's Web site
Save Our Sounds: America's Recorded Sound Heritage Project
The Library of Congress American Folklife Center: The Center and its collections encompass all aspects of folklore and folklife from this country and around the world.
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage: The Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage promotes the understanding and continuity of contemporary grassroots cultures in the United States and abroad.
SOURCES AND RELATED WEB SITES