As England's open grasslands began to be cultivated and enclosed by farmers, even birds which escaped the hunters gradually died away. Apart from the globally-extinct great auk, the bustard is the only bird known to have bred in Britain that hasn't done so in recent times.
The Great Bustard Group says Salisbury Plain is the best place to get them started again. A grassy plateau covering around 300 square miles (780 square kilometers), it's the closest Britain gets to the Russian or Spanish steppesthe main European strongholds for the species.
Of the two, the group decided on Russia as the most suitable source for the reintroduced birds.
"Genetic tests suggest the Russian birds are more closely related to the extinct British population," said Patrick Osborne, a professor of environmental science at Scotland's University of Stirling, who is working on the reintroduction program.
He says Spain's great bustards have been isolated by the Pyrenees since the last ice age so are genetically distinct from populations elsewhere in Europe.
Anatoly Khrustov, director of the Saratov branch of the Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Problems, is coordinating the Russian side of the project.
He says even bustards that roam the Russian steppes aren't free from human pressures.
"Bustards are cautious of things like cars but can be quite friendly towards farmers on slow-moving vehicles," said Khrustov. "Farmers have been known to make the most of thisand take the odd one home for the pot."
Nevertheless, he says, conservation efforts in the Saratov region have been quite successful, with the local population numbering between 5,000 and 6,000 birds. Farmers have helped by marking out nests in their fields so eggs threatened by agricultural vehicles can be moved to safety.
Twenty chicks reared by Khrustov and his colleagues will be flown to England this summer. In the future, more will follow.
"Our objective is to bring over 200 birds, which should be enough to establish a permanent population in the longer term," Osborne said.
The birds will spend 30 days in quarantine followed by a brief acclimatization period in a release pen before being set free. Human contact will be kept to a minimum to increase the bustards' chances of survival in the wild.
Once on Salisbury Plain, the birds will be heavily protected by armed troops, tanks and helicopter gunshipsin fact, the full might of the British military.
That's because Salisbury Plain is the country's main army training areacovering over 38,000 hectares (94,000 acres) of wildlife-rich habitat. The dangers of live firing and unexploded shells mean much of the plain is off-limits to civiliansa "no man's land" where vulnerable grassland plants and animals are left largely undisturbed.
"The core area for the released birds will be the area used by the military and the surrounding farmland," said Waters. "The habitat favored by the birds is a mixture of open grasslands, which they need for feeding and display, and arable crops, which they use for nesting."
Waters hopes the bustards will help boost tourism in this rural area, saying: "There's so much more to Salisbury Plain than Stonehenge."
Certainly, a male great bustard in full breeding display is an exhilarating sight.
Known as the "balloon display," the bird twitches up its long white whiskers so they look like an extravagant, waxed moustache. It then launches into a series of strange contortions.
Head and tail arch back until they meet, the wings swivel upside down, while the neck and chest balloon out. The bird seems to turn itself inside outinto something resembling a giant white powder puff. Female bustards aren't the only onlookers seduced by the spectacle.
"The missing jewel in the crown of Britain's natural heritage," is how David Waters describes the great bustard. Jewel or powder puff, Britain's bird watchers should soon be flocking to Salisbury Plain.
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Nationalgeographic.com Bird-Watching Sites:
Florida Keys Area
Maine's Acadia National Park
New Orleans Area
New York City Area
North Carolina's Outer Banks
Rocky Mountain National Park
Salt Lake City Area
San Francisco Area
Santa Fe Area
South Dakota's Black Hills
Washington's Olympic National Park
Wyoming's Grand Teton National Park
Yellowstone National Park
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Additional Information from Related Web Sites:
American Bird Center
American Bird Conservancy
Fish and Wildlife Service Bird Web Site
National Audubon Society
Environmental Protection Agency: Bird Conservation
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