for National Geographic News
Over the last decade a new kind of service animal has emerged. Seizure alert dogs warn people with epilepsy of an oncoming attack minutessometimes hoursbefore it occurs. This allows the person time to take seizure blocking medication, get to a safe place, or call for assistance.
How dogs detect an oncoming seizure in a human is a mystery. Some trainers and researchers think they detect subtle changes in human behavior or scent before an episode occurs. There are no scientific studies, however, to prove these theories. Trainers also believe the behavior is not breed, age or gender specific in dogs.
Seizure alert dogs are born with this remarkable ability. This sets them apart from other types of service animals.
"I can train a dog to sit, lay down and fetch," says Sharon Hermansen of Canine Seizure Assist Society of North Carolina, "but I can't teach a dog to alert."
Since 1996, the nonprofit organization has produced well over 25 seizure alert dogs that warn 15 minutes to 12 hours before an attack. The dogs exhibit attention-getting behaviors such as whining, pawing, or anxious barking.
The dogs came from a variety of sources. Some were from breeders or animal shelters; others were pets that showed an alerting ability. Hermansen said she encourages the alerting behavior with food rewards, then trains the dogs to do other tasks. Dogs can be trained to stay with the person during a seizure or to press a button on the phone that dials 911. When selecting a potential seizure alert dog to work with, she performs a trainability test. Hermansen says she "prays that God will show her the one that best fulfills the needs of the person with epilepsy."
"Every dog that I have chosen reliably alerts to pre-seizure activity," she said.
About 2.3 million Americans suffer from epileptic seizures. Episodes can last from a few seconds to a few minutes, and may cause unconsciousness. Some epileptics avoid normal activities because they fear the consequences of having seizures in public. "It's sad, but some people have been robbed while having a seizure," said Deborah Dalziel, a research coordinator for a University of Florida Office of Veterinary Medicine study on seizure alert dogs.
The 1998 study involved questionnaires completed by 29 dog owners who had seizures at least once a month. Of the 29 subjects, nine reported that their dog responded to a seizure. These dogs remained close to their human companions either standing or lying alongside them, sometimes licking the person's face or hands during and immediately after the seizure. Of the nine dogs reported to respond, three were said to also alert their owners to an impending seizure about three minutes in advance.
The number of dogs with this ability is unknown. The lack of standardized training and certification of service dogs, and the variety of individuals who have themselves trained their pet to sound an alert, makes it difficult to determine how many seizure alert dogs there are in the United States, Dalziel says.
Second Chance at Life
The dogs that can provide seizure alerts give people the courage and independence to live normal lives. After Donna Jacobs suffered a stroke at age 42, she began having seizures. The unpredictability of when one would strike forced the Jefferson City, Missouri, woman to give up her job. She stopped doing simple tasks like driving to the grocery store.
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