Singing, drumming, and dancing resurfaced in new, transformed rhythms and musics in slave communities and societies.
The Pan-African synthesis started on the slave ships evolved into even greater syntheses in the Americas. In places where there were heavy concentrations of enslaved Africans from a single ethnic or national group, the music and dances of these peoples would come to dominate the musical and dancing practices of their community.
Even in such settings, however, Africans from other ethnic and national groups made their contributions to the developing new cultural form.
More typically, Africans from a number of different ethnicities and nationalities created something new out of the cultural and material resources found in their new environment. They built their religious and secular rituals, festivals, and social gatherings on the foundations of song, dances, and rhythms they invented to cope with and express their New World realities.
Neo-African religionsSantería, Shango, Umbanda, Vodou, etc.all rely on African-based rhythms, musics, and dances.
Carnival and adjunkaroo festivals trace their musical and dancing roots to these neo-African traditions. Indeed, most contemporary musical forms and vernacular dances of the Caribbean and the South trace their roots to the musical and dance heritages of their enslaved African ancestors.
In the United States, the dominant forms of contemporary American music and vernacular dance are also derived from America's African-based slave legacy. This has occurred despite the fact that drums, the rhythmic foundation of African music and dance, were outlawed in many slave communities in the United States.
When slave "masters" and overseers in the United States discovered that drums could be used as a secret means of communication, they were banned. But African rhythmic sensibility would not die. Nor could it be suppressed.
In the place of drums, enslaved Africans in the United States substituted hand clapping, "pattin' juba," and tapping the feet in polyrhythmic cadences to reproduce the complex rhythms of African drumming.
Vernacular dances such as jigs, shuffles, breakdowns, shale-downs, and backsteps, as well as the strut, the ring shout, and other religious expressions, were danced to the accompaniment of these drum-less rhythms and to the fiddle, the banjo, bows, gourds, bells, and other hand or feet instrumentsall New World African inventions by enslaved Africans.
During the slavery era, enslaved Africans became the musicians of choice for white and black celebrations and festivities because they were recognized by whites and blacks as the best musicians in their locales.
Ironically, the most frequently reported occupation of fugitive slaves in New York during the colonial era was "musician," by a very wide margin. Two indigenous African-American musical formsthe spiritual and the blueswere created by enslaved Africans during the slavery era. African-American religious and secular songs trace their roots to the spirituals and the blues, respectively.
Enslaved African craftsmen and visual artists laid the foundations of the African-American visual arts tradition during slavery as well. Slave craftsmen made furniture and other utilitarian objects, some of which carried unique New World African visual arts expressions.
Carvers and stone sculptors have left utilitarian objects and artworks of surprising aesthetic quality.
Quiltmakers fashioned objects of beauty from scraps of cloth, and stone milliners and tailors were among the nation's pioneer fashion designers.
Enslaved Africans left their cultural stamp on other aspects of American culture. Southern American speech patterns, for instance, are heavily influenced by the language patterns invented by enslaved Africans.
Southern cuisine and "soul food" are nearly synonymous. Both are African-American cuisines from the slavery era. Sermons, oratory, and other forms of oral literature in the African-American vernacular idiom, including contemporary rap, trace their roots to genres developed by enslaved Africans during slavery.
This is the fourth in a series of excerpts from Jubilee: the Emergence of African-American Culture by the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.
Part One: Celebrating African-American Culture
Part Two: How Slavery Helped Build a World Economy
Part Three: Understanding Slavery in Terms of Black and White
Part Five: The Emancipation Proclamation: An Act of Justice
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