World Heritage Status Can Pose Problems as Well
Although the World Heritage Convention can provide a powerful aid in protection, making the list can be a mixed blessing. With listed status comes international exposure. Tourists eager to see the wonders of a site are quickly followedor in some cases precededby developers and others anxious to exploit the money they spend. Countries like Belize face the challenge to avoid the types of problems a massive influx of tourism and recognition has brought to other World Heritage sites.
Although listing requires detailed tourism and site management plans, often no amount of planning can be enough. Crowds at the Pyramids of the Giza Plateau led to the eventual closing of the entry shafts. Air circulation systems had to be retrofitted in an effort to reduce salt buildups condensing from thousands of human breaths. At Xian, China, site of the famous Terra-cotta Warriors, a poorly situated new museum to handle the crowds may in fact have a negative impact on the site. On the Belizean Barrier Reef, developers are closing in, exploiting World Heritage status a few miles away to sell swamp land to prospective customers over the Internet.
Another problem is that only a government can put a site within its borders on the list. This was demonstrated at Bamiyan in Afghanistan, where decades of war and recent resistance by the Taliban prevented the listing and thus protection of the giant carved Buddhas they eventually destroyed.
With 730 World Heritage sites listed today and more added annually, however, some question the roster's burgeoning size. "Although there are still many sites worthy of inclusion and needing protection, when does the list become so long that it loses the power of its exclusivity?" said Alonzo Addison, a professor of visual design at the University of California at Berkeley and a scientific commissioner for the World Heritage Convention 30th Anniversary events.
Safeguarding Sites of Natural, Cultural Importance
All nations that sign the convention commit financial resources to protect and promote their own sites and to helpwhen possiblethreatened sites around the world. Of 730 sites in 125 countries, 33 are currently included on the formal "World Heritage List of Sites in Danger." The special status provides imperiled sites access to emergency funding. Endangered sites face a myriad of threats, from natural disasters, pollution, and lack of funding to war. The threat of removal from the list can also serve as a powerful incentive for nations to be diligent about protecting their sites.
While prestige and recognition bring many benefits, the World Heritage designation has, in Belize's case, helped in a more immediately tangible way by bringing in badly needed cash for crucial management and sustainability programs.
"It has created funding for the various protected areas that comprise the site," Gibson said. "Several community-based projects through this mechanism are currently underway in Belize, and are focused on reducing threats to the World Heritage System."
Such projects seek to tie local communities to conservation efforts by giving them a financial stake in preservation, such as promoting tourism infrastructure or diving industries rather than commercial fishing. So far, such efforts seem to be gaining steam.
"One of the greatest limiting factors in Belize's conservation efforts has been access to funding and human resources," Robinson said. "It is the hope of many Belizeans that the designation will allow greater access to what is needed most."
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