Former Nuclear Test Range Becomes SanctuaryBut Dangers Remain
Most surviving wild Bactrian camels live in the Gobi Desert, one of the world's largest. Vegetation is sparse there, and the landscape varies from rocky mountains to stony plains, high sand dunes, and poplar-fringed oases.
Precipitation averages less than four inches (100 millimeters) per year, and may fall only once every two or three years. Temperatures fluctuate wildly, reaching sweltering marks of 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius) in the summer and plunging as far as 40 degrees Fahrenheit (-40 degrees Celsius) in the winter.
Life in such climatic extremes is lived on the edge. The tough natural conditions mean that life is precarious. Human impacts that might seem small can have devastating effect.
In such an environment, the camels need all the help they can get. Recently, the Chinese government has attempted to provide some much-needed protection, thanks in large part to the lobbying efforts of the Wild Camel Protection Foundation. A 25,097-square-mile (65,000-square-kilometer) reserve, the Arjin Sha Lop Nur Nature Sanctuary, has been established to help protect the camel. Other desert animals, including wild sheep, Tibetan ass, and goitered gazelle, also stand to benefit. The reserve encompasses a desolate area that was used by Chinese government as a nuclear test site from 1955 to 1996.
While the reserve is a step in the right direction, said Hare, it may not be enough to stop the demise of the Bactrian camel. "Ironically, the camels might have been better protected when the area was a nuclear testing range than they are now," said Hare. "During the nuclear testing, no one could go in there. [The camels] seem to show no ill-effects at all from the testing itself."
The creation of the Arjin Sha Lop Nur Nature Sanctuary has demonstrated that the Chinese government can accommodate conservation efforts while still promoting a development agenda of tantamount importance to the government, according to Hare. The prospect holds hope for Bactrian camels and other threatened species.
"China is hell-bent on economic development, especially in the Northwest. So there is always a competition between development and the environment," Hare said. "There [was] a gas pipeline about to be put through the reserve. We've managed to get them to divert it, at a cost of U.S. $18 million, away from a particularly sensitive camel area. So there is certainly some give and take."
Many factors are pushing the wild Bactrian camel to the brink of extinction, all of them amplified by the unforgiving environment in which the animals dwell. Human impacts have a profound effectespecially upon a population already so reduced in size.
Bactrian camels are targeted by hunters seeking food, sport, or merely to protect their own domestic animals which compete with the camels for grazing space. That same grazing competition from domesticated livestock deprives Bactrian camels of food and poses a risk of interbreeding among domestic animals. Mining, both legal and illegal, also encroaches on the reserve.
A prolonged drought has withered many of the region's oases. At the few remaining watering holes, wolves lie in wait for wild camels. While this is a natural cycle, it has a particularly traumatic effect on a population that has been unnaturally reduced in size. The host of threats against the camel suggests a rather bleak future. "What's the worst-case scenario? In perhaps 50 years they could be extinct in the wild," said Hare. The grim prognosis has led the Wild Camel Protection Foundation to open another avenue to safeguard the populationa captive breeding program supported by the Mongolian Ministry of Nature and the Environment. Only 15 wild Bactrian camels are currently held in captivity in China and Mongolia. The new breeding aims to increase that number and provide scientists a more in-depth look at the unique animal. Still, the future of the wild Bactrian camel will likely depend on efforts to protect the animals in their native desert habitat. Conservationists hope the reclassification of Bactrian camels as critically endangered can aid that effort.
"The listing does help to prompt conservation reaction," said Hilton-Taylor, of the IUCN. "Hopefully it's in time to make a difference."
Last year, John Hare led a National Geographic Society-sponsored camel caravan across the Sahara Desert. The 1,500-mile (2,400-kilometer) expedition from northeastern Nigeria to Tripoli, Libya, retraced the 1906 journey by British explorer Hanns Vischer. Hare described the expedition in a live Web cast broadcast on December 5, 2002 at Nationalgeographic.com. The program was offered under the "Quest for Adventure" lecture series, sponsored by Nature Valley, that brings the world's greatest explorers and adventurers to the National Geographic Society and to people around the world via the Internet.
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