Evidence of a New Workers' Town
This year's research also uncovered evidence of a separate workers' town, dubbed "the Eastern town," complete with courtyards, chambers, and houses. "It looks like a typical settlement, and that's what we had expected," Lehner said. "But we found these curious long galleries and we didn't know what they were."
"If the galleries mean thousands of people, and the Eastern town means substantial numbers of people, they were people who moved in very different ways," Lehner explained. "In the Eastern town, the powers that be are allowing them to organize themselves as they see fit."
Lehner speculates that the Eastern town housed skilled craftsmen, artisans, stone masons, quarrymen, overseers, and officials. The discovery of the town area reinforces the theory that ancient Egyptians utilized both permanent skilled labor, and a temporary workforce to complete the massive construction project.
While such temporary labor was not voluntary, Lehner suggests, neither was it slave labor in the sense most commonly assumed.
Beginnings of Egyptian Unity?
"It's hard for modern Americans and Europeans to understand what obligation was like in a traditional pre-modern society," Lehner said. "Obligation was understoodit was a part of society, which was sometimes nothing more than your clan or your village."
But while labor in the ancient world was obligatory, Lehner believes it did not have to be a totally unpleasant experience.
"The picture of a highly centralized bureaucracy going through the land and conscripting people for labor by forceit's highly doubtful," said Lehner. "Instead, it's the local rulers, heads of villages, large estates, that the royal house goes to when they need labor."
Because the labor pool was a rotating force, contributed by local authorities from all over Egypt, the Pyramids project may have had a tremendous socializing effect.
"It was a coming together of people from throughout the land," said Lehner. "By coming and working in this place, it socialized information and bound all these disparate areas, these provinces, into a whole. It was really the beginnings of Egyptian unity."
"That's why I like to say my interest now is not so much how the Egyptians built the pyramids but how the pyramids helped to build Egypt."
Site Could Yield First Old Kingdom Royal Palace
While the workforce might have been disparate, the royal house was likely the driving force behind the pyramids' construction. As excavations continue, Lehner and his team hope to find further evidence of royal presence on the site.
A group of mud-brick silos surrounding a rectangular court was also found this year, which probably stored huge quantities of grain used for baking bread. They are situated within a royal structure for storage and administration of the complex, first viewed during the 2001 field season, and excavated in 2002.
"It's been my expectation that we wouldn't have a barracks out there by itself in the desert," Lehner said. "Whenever they organized production it was always centered around a household."
On a small-scale project, this might mean an ordinary household. On bigger projects, it was that of a governor or a palace. "When we started finding bakeries some ten years ago, my expectation was that there would be a royal house right there," Lehner said.
Such expectations may yet be realized. The team has uncovered a small part of some tantalizing remains, which lie primarily beneath a soccer field.
"We've begun to clear a very big double-walled and triple-walled building," Lehner enthused, "and inside we find lots of chambers, evidence of weaving, copperwork and a big court where we found the sunken silos. It could be a palace, or some sort of administration building. If this site follows the pattern of other sites, we should have the residence of an important person on the site."
If that person turns out to be one of the ancient Pharaohs, a unique archaeological treasure could lie beneath the playing fieldEgypt's first Old Kingdom royal palace.
The new discoveries were featured in a National Geographic Channel global television event on September 16, 2002.
The live two-hour documentary aired in 141 countries.
Viewers of the television event were able to go on a live archaeological expedition deep inside the secret and complex shafts within the queen's chamber in the Great Pyramid, also known as Khufu's Great Pyramid, after the Egyptian pharaoh who is believed to have built it.
National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Zahi Hawass, who is now head of Egypt's antiquities, along with American archaeologist Mark Lehner, served as the expedition's leaders. During the special, Hawass and Lehner offered answers to two of history's most perplexing mysterieshow the Great Pyramid of Giza was built and who executed the awe-inspiring enterprise.
The special visited the nearby workers' cemetery, where a historic discovery recently was made: The oldest intact Egyptian sarcophagus of its kind ever found by modern archaeologists was unearthed in a tomb inscribed with the grand title "Overseer of the Administrative District." The coffin had been sealed for more than 4,500 years, and viewers watched as archaeologists cracked the lid for the first time and unveiled its ancient contents. They found a perfectly preserved skeleton inside.
The queen's chamber inside Khufu's Great Pyramid contains architecturally complex shafts, whose function and purpose remain unknown to this day. With a custom-built robot equipped with fiber-optic lenses, high-resolution cameras, and the world's smallest ground-penetrating radar antenna, the archaeologist team traveled deep into the mysterious shafts, attempting to peer beyond a blocking stone to look for new clues about Pharoah Khufu and his Great Pyramid.
Read Ancient Pyramid Chambers Opened for a full account, with images, of this expedition.
National Geographic News: Ancient Egypt
Nationalgeographic.com Mummy Features:
Inca Mummies: Secrets of a Lost World (National Geographic's "Mummy Central" hub site for stories, images, galleries, news, and more)
Múmias Incas: Mummy photos, a map, and more from our Portuguese-language site
Inca Mummies interactive feature on our British site
Three Inca Mummies Found on Volcano in Argentina
The two girls and a boy, relics of an Inca sacrificial ritual, were found in a burial platform atop Argentina's Mount Llullaillacoat 22,000 feet (6,706 meters) the world's highest archaeological site.
Join the National Geographic Society
Join the world's largest nonprofit scientific and educational organization, and help further our mission to increase and diffuse knowledge of the world and all that is in it. Membership dues are used to fund exploration and educational projects and members also receive 12 annual issues of the Society's official journal, National Geographic. Click here for details of our latest subscription offer: Go>>