National Geographic Today
On the remote Caribbean island of Beata in the Dominican Republic,
scientists have discovered what appears to be the world's tiniest
species of lizard.
At a miniscule 16 millimeters (just over half an inch), the dark brown lizard is small enough to curl up on a dime or stretch out on a quarter.
The dwarf gecko was named Sphaerodactylus ariasae in honor of herpetologist Yvonne Arias, a proponent of conservation efforts in the Dominican Republic. Other extremely tiny lizards have been found, such as one named Sphaerodactylus parthenopion, which was discovered in the British Virgin Islands in 1965. These lizards are the smallest of 23,000 species of reptiles, birds, and mammals.
The discovery of S. ariasae was no accident. Researchers Blair Hedges of Pennsylvania State University in University Park and Richard Thomas of the University of Puerto Rico traveled to Beata specifically to look for new species.
"If you want to find something new to science, you need to get as far from civilization as possible," said Hedges, an evolutionary biologist. "That's what we do."
For example, in 1994, Blair flew over eastern Cuba to scout out areas he thought might harbor new species. "I saw this rugged area of a mountain range, with very course topographyextremely inaccessibleand knew that was where I wanted to search," said Blair. After landing and hiking to the spot he had identified from the airplane, he found a new species of lizard.
"Almost every trip we make turns up a new species. On one trip we found eight," said Blair. Together the scientists have discovered more than 50 new species of amphibians and reptiles in the Caribbean.
Not Easy to Find
The scientists loaded up 50 gallons of motor boat fuel onto a truck and drove to the coastal town of Cabo Rojo in the Dominican Republic, where they rented a 15-foot boat. But finding a fisherman willing to make the journey to Beata was difficult because the seas are rough and the journey takes several hours.
After arranging the transportation and reaching the island, Hedges and Thomas hiked and camped around the island for a few days before they came across the area where they found the new lizard.
According to Hedges, Beata was first discovered and named by Columbus about 500 years ago. Soon after its discovery, the island was pillaged for its lumber. Most of the original growth forestthe big tropical trees that originally covered the islandhave been replaced by short scruffy trees no taller than 30 feet (9 meters), which cover the low-lying flat limestone land.
On their third day, at the entrance to a small and moist cave, the scientists first saw one of the tiny lizards skitter past.
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