for National Geographic News
Genetic engineering holds great potential payoffs for farmers and consumers by making crops resistant to pests, diseases, and even chemicals used to kill surrounding weeds. But new research raises concerns that altering crops to withstand such threats may pose new risksfrom none other than the weeds themselves.
The threat comes from the weeds' ability to acquire genes from the neighboring agricultural crops.
Researchers found that when a weed cross-breeds with a farm-cultivated relative and thus acquires new genetic traitspossibly including artificial genes engineered to make the crop hardierthe hybrid weed can pass along those traits to future generations.
"The result may be very hardy, hard-to-kill weeds," said Allison Snow, a plant ecologist at Ohio State University in Columbus who conducted the experiments over the past six years along with two colleagues. They presented their results last week at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America in Madison, Wisconsin.
The findings suggest that genetic engineering done with the aim of improving cropsgiving them new genetic traits such as resistance to herbicides or pestscould ultimately have unintended and harmful consequences for the crops if weeds acquire the same trait and use it to out-compete the crops.
"Gene movement from crops to their wild relatives is an ongoing process that can be ultimately harmful to crops," said Snow.
The scientists conducted the experiments at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston. They used two species of radish: one a common edible radish, the other a wild relative. The wild version is a tenacious weed that reproduces more readily than the crop and can take over agricultural fields if not controlled.
The scientists began by cross-breeding the cultivated radishes and the weedy radishes to produce hybrid, weed-like radishes. Then they designed studies to measure and compare the reproductive success and other traits of the hybrid and non-hybrid radishes.
The original crop radishes used to produce the hybrids had not been genetically engineered. But the scientists wanted to monitor the effects of the "borrowed" genes in weed populations over subsequent generations. They did this by selecting several genetic traits in the cultivated radishes, including flower color and fertility, to serve as "markers" indicating the spread of crop genes into the hybrid population.
When the two groups of plants were grown in pots under the same conditions, the non-hybrid radishes had more seeds and reproduced more than the hybrid plants, especially in the first generation of the experiment.
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