Warming Oceans Contributed to Record Arctic Melt

<< Back to Page 1   Page 2 of 2

Based on satellite images, there's now less than half of the "middle-aged ice"—ice that's more than five years old—than there was in the 1980s, Maslanik reported at the AGU meeting.

"And the really old ice, nine [or more] years old, has essentially disappeared," Maslanik said.

Researchers have also been keeping an eye on the ice growth this fall and winter.

"There was a reduction in fall ice growth by nearly one meter," or about three feet, reported Michael Steele of the University of Washington in Seattle.

"That missing meter of sea ice has a carryover effect," noted John Walsh of the University of Alaska in Fairbanks.

The decline in ice growth could increase how much melts in future years, he explained.

"It means the ice is more vulnerable," Walsh said.

"All the Suspects Are Guilty"

To determine what has caused the ice crisis, researchers looked at all the "usual suspects," such as warmer air temperatures, winds, clouds, and ocean currents.

This year, "all the suspects are guilty," Perovich said. (See an interactive map of global warming's effects.)

But the ringleader may have been ocean currents that brought warmer water up to the Arctic from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Steele said.

There was "off-the-charts warming" in those surface waters, he added.

Such warming not only melted the ice but also created additional effects that led to further melting.

Sea ice reflects most sunlight, but when the ice melts, it creates open ocean, which absorbs most of the sun's heat. This absorption heats up the waters, leading to even more melting.

"It's a classic positive feedback," Perovich said. "It's important because it can take a small change and amplify it."

(Read related story: "Global Warming Feedback Loop Caused by Methane, Scientists Say" [August 29, 2006].)

But the process can't start on its own, he added.

"It needs a trigger," Perovich said. "[This year] ocean currents could [have been] that trigger."

How Much Time Is Left?

When asked how long the perennial ice might last, many researchers here shrugged their shoulders.

A report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in February predicts that the summer sea ice may disappear early in the next century.

But the report points out that while computer models have improved, they still have problems predicting how much Arctic sea ice will melt from year to year.

Some experts think it will take longer than Maslowski's projection of six years, but it will still be less time than was previously thought.

"I'm not too precise about it," Perovich says.

"I used to say it might happen sometime in my kids' lifetime," he said.

Perovich, who says he's "over 50," added, "Now it seems I may live to see it."

Free Email News Updates
Sign up for our Inside National Geographic newsletter. Every two weeks we'll send you our top stories and pictures (see sample).

<< Back to Page 1   Page 2 of 2




NEWS FEEDS     After installing a news reader, click on this icon to download National Geographic News's XML/RSS feed.   After installing a news reader, click on this icon to download National Geographic News's XML/RSS feed.

Get our news delivered directly to your desktop—free.
How to Use XML or RSS

National Geographic Daily News To-Go

Listen to your favorite National Geographic news daily, anytime, anywhere from your mobile phone. No wires or syncing. Download Stitcher free today.
Click here to get 12 months of National Geographic Magazine for $15.