James Eder, an anthropologist at Arizona State University in Tempe, collected data in the 1980s showing that Batak women reached menopause as early as 28 or 29 years old.
"The most distinctive thing I could say about [the Batak], other than the superficial things, is this business about a pop where women are shutting down their reproductive cycling," Eder said.
"I found cases of women 28 years old who said they no longer experienced menstruation. Very few births were occurring to women more than 30 years of age," he said.
Eder allowed Migliano to use some of his data but did not participate in her research.
"Life History" Theory
Theories similar to Migliano's hypothesis have been used to explain the difference in size between other kinds of mammals, such as elephants and mice.
"The broad variation in size across mammals goes with extreme variation in the pace of life histories—little-bitty ones live fast and die young, and big ones live slowly and die old," said Kristen Hawkes, an anthropologist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City who edited Migliano's paper.
"Links between body size and life history have been applied to species changes over time within our lineage, but [Migliano] is the one who's taken this theory to look at within-species variation among living people."
Migliano's theory will no doubt be controversial, particularly among creationists and proponents of intelligent design, because it proposes that pygmies are proof of how our species, Homo sapiens, continues to evolve.
(Read related story: "Evolution Less Accepted in U.S. Than Other Western Countries, Study Finds" [August 10, 2006].)
"There is this idea that evolution should not apply for humans," noted Migliano, who said she had already gotten some criticism for putting her theory forward.
She added that she is also pressing the government of the Philippines to improve pygmies' living conditions.
"I am sure we are still adapting to our environment," she said. "But saying we are adapting to our environment doesn't say that the pygmies are fine. They are adapting to the worst situation in the world."
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