"We have roughly 41 pairs that successfully raised young last year," says Bangs. "Essentially wolf recovery, on a biological level, has been achieved."
But the delisting proposal will encompass states outside the original recovery area. The proposal seems too broad for conservationists concerned about states like Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington, where experts disagree about the wolf population's resiliency.
"The job is only half done," says Tom France, attorney and director of the Missoula-based Northern Rockies office of the National Wildlife Federation. France has worked on wolf programs for 20 years.
Nina Fascione, a biologist and vice president of species conservation at Defenders of Wildlife in Washington, D.C., disputes whether the USFWS has indeed reached its goal of 30 breeding pairs.
"The distribution is just as important as the total number of wolves," says Fascione. "The number of pairs in Montana is below 10 and we need that area to serve as a corridor between Canada and Idaho and Wyoming."
Multiple populations, Fascione points out, promote genetic diversity and serve as insurance against natural disaster and disease.
While the delisting debate continues, wolf researchers are still cutting to the chase.
Each winter, in Yellowstone National Park, Bangs joins Doug Smith, the Yellowstone wolf project leader, in an attempt to collar 25 wolves throughout the park.
Researchers track the animals to monitor how they affect other wildlife like elk and deerand livestock in the Yellowstone ecosystem.
There are only three ways to capture wolves. A leg trap, a neck snare, or a net gun or dart fired from a helicopter. Each technique has its own advantage, depending on the terrain.
In Yellowstone Park grizzly bears could get caught in leg traps or neck snares, eliminating these as possibilities. The terrain is open so aerial darting from a helicopter using newly developed tranquilizer drugs is the method used by wildlife biologists.
A slow-flying spotter plane finds the target wolves and radios a helicopter, which drops off what they call the "capture crew" near the wolf pack. Meanwhile, on board the helicopter, a dart sharpshooter takes aim.
"Capturing a wolf from a helicopter is an adrenaline rush," says Smith.
"They're running fast. This winter we don't have much snow so they're running faster than normal. They can do what we call 'juke and jive'cut right, cut left, sometimes turn around completely because the snow isn't slowing them up this year."
Once a wolf is down, the capture team members on the ground fit it with a radio collar. They give each animal a quick physical and draw blood for DNA and disease analysis.
One complication is wolf turf. When the team captures wolves outside their own pack's territory biologists use the helicopter to fly them back to their home region before they wake up from the sedation. Otherwise the resident wolf pack might prey on them.
"Wolves, no matter how you look at them, are controversial," Smith says. "To solve problems we have to have information."
National Geographic Today, 7 p.m. ET/PT in the United States, is a daily news journal available only on the National Geographic Channel. Click here to learn more about it.
Got a high-speed modem? Watch National Geographic Today in streaming video.
SOURCES AND RELATED WEB SITES