for National Geographic News
While most people at this time of year think about eating turkey, I think about seeing onenot the overweight, pale, domesticated bird that ends up on the Thanksgiving table, but rather its streamlined, bronzy ancestor: the wild turkey.
This ground-dwelling native of North American forests is fairly common now, but only 30 years ago it was nonexistent across much of its historic range, a casualty of overhunting and deforestation.
English naturalist John Josselyn was one of the first to note the turkey's decline. In 1672, after an extended visit to Maine, he wrote: "The English and the Indians having now destroyed the breed, so that 'tis very rare to meet with a wild Turkie in the woods."
The estimated 10 million turkeys that roamed North America before European settlement dwindled to a fragmented population of 30,000 by the early 1900s. They had been extirpated from 18 of 39 states they originally inhabited.
I glimpsed my first wild turkeys in the late 1970s at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in Texas, but it took another decade for me to find them in my home woods of Fairfield County, Connecticut. By then, reintroduction programs in New England and elsewhere were proving successful.
Members of remnant populations had been captured in rocket-propelled nets and moved to forested regions where no wild turkeys had been seen for a century or more. Sustained by good habitatextensive, open woods with waterways and adjacent fieldsand protected by hunting suspensions, many of the relocated birds thrived.
Wild turkeys now occur in all of the lower 48 states, and their number has risen to more than 5.5 million. To most observers, however, they remain elusive. Their predators include great horned owls, bobcats, cougars, coyotes, and foxes, so wariness is in their blood. Unleashed dogs take a heavy toll, and their return has put their worst enemyhuman huntersback on their trail.
Getting close to a wild turkey on foot, therefore, isn't easy. My first Connecticut turkeysfive males that crossed my path in a nature preservebehaved typically. When they saw me, they strutted away, taking a hiking trail up a hill. I followed, trying repeatedly to get a good look, but they never allowed me more than a glimpse of their tails as they disappeared beyond the next bend.
Growing alarmed at my persistence, they peeled off the trail and ran down the other side of the hill, through some brush. Guided by their loud rustling, I tried to stay close behind, but my speed was no match for theirs, and I lost them along the border of a marsh.
Like most people, I've gotten some of my best looks at turkeys from behind the wheel of a car. Turkeys often forage in roadside fields or clearings, and they seem to view a car and its driver as one benign behemoth.
An exception was the female I met early one morning on a country road. She stood on the pavement with her brood, so I pulled alongside and urged her to move everyone to safety. In defense, she stood her ground and spread her wings, but to my relief, she soon led her young into the woods.
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