for National Geographic Today
Along the Galápagos Rift, off the storied Galápagos Islands, is a hotbed of volcanoes and hydrothermal vents that spew boiling soups of metals, salts, and poisonous gas. These seemingly inhospitable vents are home to some of the toughest, most exotic life on Earth, including clams and mussels as big as dinner plates and bright-white tubeworms six feet long.
The giant tubeworms, discovered during a pathbreaking exploration of the rift in 1977, forced a rethinking of life on the ocean floor. The rift lies 300 miles (500 kilometers) north of the Galápagos Islands, and the seafloor extends 8,000 feet (2,500 meters) below the waves.
"The rule of thumb was that only small organisms could occupy the deep sea," says Tim Shank, a biologist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts and co-director of a recent expedition to the Galápagos Rift organized to mark the 25th anniversary of the hydrothermal vent discovery.
"We knew there were microbial communities that could survive without sunlight or oxygen, but tubeworms are massive life-forms," he added.
The recent expedition focused primarily on tubeworms, which have developed unique adaptations to their environment.
These worms live in pitch-black ocean depths in water laced with acid and toxic gasharsh conditions that may resemble those in which life first evolved. Scientists want to decode the tubeworms' survival skills.
No Stomach, No Gut, No Eyes
Kang Ding, a geochemist at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis, devised a new sensor to explore the worm's world inside and out. "This is the first time we have tried to put a sensor into the actual worm," Kang says.
To deploy Kang's new sensor, scientists descended to an ocean-floor vent inside Alvin, a deep-sea submersible able to withstand the crushing pressures of two-mile (three-kilometer) depths.
The pilot in the submersible maneuvered Alvin's robotic arm to slide the probe into a worm, inch by inch. Every four seconds the probe measured the temperature, acidity, and concentration of two gases (hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide), all of which are critical to the survival of the tubeworms.
The new probe enhanced the scientists' appreciation of the tubeworm's uniqueness.
"Actually, the tubeworm has no stomach, no gut, no eyes. It is basically a bag of bacteria with an aorta and gonads," Shank says.
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