Researchers Spin Straw Into Gold

Peter N. Spotts
The Christian Science Monitor
August 29, 2002

Rumpelstiltskin, the fairy-tale rogue who spun straw into gold, has nothing on Miguel Yacaman and Jorge Gardea-Torresdey.

The two University of Texas researchers have developed a way to draw gold from wheat, alfalfa, or—best of all—oats.

No spinning wheel required. In this day and age, a simple solvent will suffice to turn homely vegetation into a source of precious metals.

But if you're thinking of quitting the day job and buying an alfalfa farm, don't be too hasty. The quantities of gold at stake won't quickly cover the cost of a harvesting combine.

The yields, in fact, are microscopic. The gold appears as particles mere billionths of a meter wide.

But the duo holds that their approach—which takes advantage of plants' metal-absorbing abilities—could provide a cheap way to "mine" gold from soils, with the plants supplying the gold in forms tailor-made for use in the burgeoning field of nanotechnology.

The work represents the first time researchers have reported that living plants form these gold micro-nuggets, opening "exciting new ways to fabricate nanoparticles," according to Gardea-Torresdey, who heads the chemistry department at the University of Texas at El Paso.

He notes that current approaches to making gold nanoparticles, now used as tags for studying cellular processes in biology and coveted for use as electrical contacts in nanoelectronic circuits, are expensive and involve chemical processes that generate pollution.

The use of plants, he holds, "is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly."

Researchers have known for years that plants take up metals. Plants' abilities to absorb all sorts of toxic compounds have led to their use as biological vacuum cleaners on sites tainted with pollutants ranging from arsenic, TNT, and zinc to radioactive cesium. By some estimates, phytoremediation could become a U.S. $214 million to $370 million business within the next three years.

Indeed, the key piece in the gold-from-alfalfa puzzle fell into place during a hazardous-waste clean-up effort outside Mexico City, according to Yacaman, a chemical engineering professor who came to Austin from Mexico two years ago. While in Mexico serving as director of the physics institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Yacaman teamed up with Gardea-Torresdey to use plants to clean up the site, heavily contaminated with chromium.

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