"The great majority of ambush predators among Australian elapid snakes are either threatened or suspected to be threatened," said Reed. "Most of this is probably due to decreased prey abundances as habitat is disturbed by human activities."
The reason Australian elapids whose males do not fight one another are more likely to be threatened with extinction comes down to size: "The mating system does not confer a mating advantage to larger male size via male to male combat," Reed and Shine note in their study.
As a result, females tend to be larger than the males, making them more susceptible to predation by humans. By killing more females than males, humans make it more difficult for these snakes to maintain viable populations.
Reed and Shine identified six snake species that are not officially considered threatened by Australian wildlife agencies, but are ecologically similar to other threatened species.
Call for Conservation
The revulsion toward snakes, says Reed, is partially due to misinformation and myths about the evils and dangers associated with snakes; information and myths that he says are not true.
"Compared to deaths caused by horses, dogs, and other humans, snakebites result in very few human deaths," said Reed.
According to Whit Gibbons, head of the Environmental Outreach and Education program at the Savannah River Ecology Lab, humans stand a better chance at being killed by an earthquake or volcano1 in11 millionor by drinking a lethal dose of detergent1 in 23 millionthan death by snakebite1 in 36 million.
The researchers hope that the erosion of the myths about the dangers of snakes via education will result in an increase in funding for basic snake ecology research.
Quentin Wheeler, Division Director of the Division of Environmental Biology at the National Science Foundation in Arlington, Virginia, says that the foundation tries to fund research that has the broadest implications possible.
"The reality is that we have very limited budgets and that we receive many more scientifically worthy proposals than we can fund," he said.
"Forced to prioritize, the National Science Foundation and its advisors logically rank those projects highest that advance the cutting edge of science and that have a positive impact on the largest subset of the community possible," he added.
For their part, Reed and Shine believe that the conservation of snakes would have a large, positive impact:
"It is vital that we protect ecosystems, not just cute species," said Shine. "The only hope for biodiversity is to conserve entire interacting systems of species. Snakes play an important role in many such systems."
National Geographic Resources on Snakes
India's Snake Charmers Fade, Blaming Eco-Laws, TV
Life Is Confusing For Two-Headed Snakes
Fear of Snakes, Spiders Rooted in Evolution, Study Finds
Some Snakes Find Safety In "Cross-Dressing"
Anaconda Expert Wades Barefoot in Venezuela's Swamps
Female-Mimicking Male Snakes Are Out to Get Warm, Study Says
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