Maps Explain the 27 National Monuments Under Review by Trump
Get a bird's eye view of these protected areas with an uncertain future.
President Donald Trump’s review of large national monuments is set to end next week. Last April, he dispatched Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke to inspect 27 monuments by August 25, and determine which, if any, are too big.
By “large,” Trump meant monuments that are at least 100,000 acres in size. All were created by Presidents Obama, George W. Bush, and Clinton. All but six occupy federal land in western states.
The Department of the Interior manages “one-fifth” of all land in the United States. Under executive order issued by President Trump, Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke produced a list of 22 National Monu- ments within the contiguous states and 5 National Marine Monuments that are subject to changes.
Native American reservation
National Monument under review
The Department of the Interior manages “one-fifth” of all land in the United States. Under executive order issued by President Trump, Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke pro-
duced a list of 22 National Monuments within the contiguous states and 5 National Marine Monuments subject to changes.
Native American land
National Monument under review
Tap list for maps and more information.
Click list for maps and more information.
National Monuments set to change:
Created in 2016 by President Obama and named for two buttes that jut above the ridgeline, Bears Ears encompasses 1.35 million acres in southern Utah’s red rock country and protects cliff dwellings and one of the West’s largest collections of tribal artifacts.
National Monuments set to remain the same:
Created in 2000 by President Clinton in eastern Washington, the monument once served as a 194,000-acre buffer zone around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington state. It protects one of the last large shrub-steppe ecosystems in the Columbia River Basin.
Created in 2017 by President Clinton, the monument encompasses 377,000 acres along a 149-mile stretch of the Missouri River in central Montana and includes parts of the Lewis and Clark Historic Trail that remain as wild as they were in 1805.
Created in 1924 by President Coolidge, enlarged slightly by President Kennedy in 1962 and then expansively by President Clinton in 2000. Idaho lawmakers have proposed that Congress designate the original 54,000 acres of this 738,000-acre moonscape of lava beds and cinder cones as Idaho’s only national park.
Created in 2016 by President Obama, the 87,500-acre monument added 54,000 acres to a 100,000-acre wilderness area in Southern California already protected by Congress. This desert-to-mountain terrain is home to more than 240 species of birds and 12 threatened or endangered animals.
Created by in 2000 by President Clinton, the monument spans just over 1 million acres of roadless, undeveloped and remote land along the north rim of the Grand Canyon in Arizona. It protects dramatic geologic formations of cliffs and buttes that feature fossils and tribal artifacts dating to the ice age.
Created in 2000 by President Clinton, the monument spans 175,160 acres in southwest Colorado. It protects archaeological sites dating back 10,000 years, and is home to many desert species including peregrine falcons, red-tailed hawks and golden eagles.
National Monuments with unknown status:
Created in 2000 by President Clinton, the 100,000-acre monument straddles the Oregon-California border region of the Cascade Range and protects habitat for a diverse array of species, including the threatened spotted owl, the pileated woodpecker and the pygmy nuthatch.
Created by President Obama in 2015 in northern California, this 331,000-acre monument reaches from Pacific Ocean beaches to the 7,000-foot mountains of the Inner Coastal Range. It protects ancient Native American settlement sites and provides winter habitat for bald eagles.
Created in 2000 by President Clinton in central California, this 328,000-acre expanse is split between two sections directly north and south of Sequoia National Park, and protects 33 groves of the world’s largest tree.
Created in 2001 by President Clinton, this 204,000-acre vista is one of the last intact parts of the grassy plain that covered California’s Central Valley two centuries before settlers arrived. The monument features abundant springtime wildflowers and one of Southern California’s largest wetlands.
Created in 2014 by President Obama in the mountain forests of Southern California, this 346,000-acre “island of green” provides 70 percent of the open space and 30 percent of the drinking water for 15 million people in the Los Angeles Basin.
Created in 2016 by President Obama, this undeveloped stretch of famed Route 66 in Southern California expands a 350,000-acre wilderness area set up by Congress into a 1.6-million-acre expanse of dramatic sand dunes and ancient lava flows.
Created in 2015 by President Obama in southeastern Nevada, the monument extends over 704,000 acres of some of the most rugged terrain in the Great Basin Desert and protects prehistoric rock art dating back 4,000 years.
Created in 2016 by President Obama, this 296,940-acre landscape of red sandstone formations fills in the gap between the Lake Mead National Recreation Area and the Virgin Mountains, creating a continuous wildlife corridor for large animals, including bighorn sheep and mountain lions.
Created in 1996 by President Clinton, this series of cliffs and plateaus descends in multi-colored stair-steps over 1.7 million acres reaching from Bryce Canyon in southwest Utah to the Grand Canyon. The monument also protects paleontological and tribal archeological sites, as well as 300 animal species, including the endangered desert tortoise.
Created in 2000 by President Clinton, this 293,000-acre geologic treasure of trails leading through spectacularly colored rock strata lies northeast of the Grand Canyon in Arizona. Endangered California condor hatchlings bred in captivity are released here to live.
Created in 2000 by President Clinton, this 129,000-acre vista lies in the Silver Bell Mountains in southern Arizona. It protects one of the densest forests of ironwood trees, which can live for 800 years.
Created in 2013 by President Obama in northern New Mexico, this high desert landscape reaches across 242,500 acres of the Río Grande River Gorge and features deep canyons and volcanic cones. The monument protects numerous collections of tribal artifacts and serves as a major migratory flyway for sandhill cranes, herons, avocets, hummingbirds, and Canada geese.
Created in 2014 by President Obama, this monument includes 496,000 acres across southern New Mexico with a rich history dating to the Folsom and Clovis cultures and six wilderness study areas under protection since 1980.
Created in 2016 by President Obama in the wilds of north central Maine, this 87,500-acre collection of streams, rivers, forests and trails lies within a larger landscape that public and private efforts have worked for a century to protect.
Created in 2009 by President Obama in the western Pacific Ocean, the monument reaches for 95,216 square miles across a string of 14 volcanic islands known as the Mariana Archipelago. It supports a richly diverse array of sea life and formations, including the largest mud volcanoes on Earth.
Created by President Bush in 2006 and enlarged by President Obama in 2016 in the Pacific Ocean, this 583,000 square-mile expanse is the world’s largest protected area. One fourth of the 7,000 species of marine animals and seabirds that live in the monument are not found anywhere else.
Created by President Bush in 2009 and enlarged by President Obama in 2014, the Pacific Ocean 490,000-square-mile monument is the world’s largest marine conservation area and one of the last refuges protecting many animals and fish, including turtles, sharks, dolphins, whales, parrotfish, large grouper, and pearl oysters.
Rose Atoll Marine
Created in 2009 by President Bush, this South Pacific Ocean monument protects 13,400 square miles of rare and endangered marine animals and seabirds, including giant clams, parrotfishes, sharks, whales the largest Eer of nesting turtles in American Samoa—as well as the Rose Atoll Wildlife Refuge, created in 1973 to protect the rose-colored corals for which it was named.
Created in 2016 by President Obama, the first marine monument in the Atlantic Ocean contains some of the world’s oldest deep sea canyons and extinct volcanoes. It extends for 4,913 square miles off New England and protects Kemp’s ridley sea turtles and sperm, fin and sei whales.
Riley D. Champine, Irene Berman-Vaporis, and Lauren Tierney, NG Staff. Sources: U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service
Zinke, a Montanan who conducted part of his inspection tour on horseback, has so far identified only one monument for downgrading: Bears Ears, which spreads across southern Utah’s dramatic red rock country for 3.5 million acres. It is named for twin buttes that jut above the landscape and is full of ancient cliff dwellings and tribal artifacts. Utah lawmakers opposed it since before Obama created it last year and asked Trump as soon as he was sworn into office to shrink it or, better, abolish it altogether.
The monuments on Zinke’s list date to 1996. That is the year that Clinton created the Grand Staircase Escalante, another red-rock expanse in southern Utah that takes up 1.7 million acres. It contains a rich vein of coal, now out of reach. Utah lawmakers also would like the Grand Staircase’s monument designation obliterated.
Trump called his review of monument sizing an exercise “ending abuse of monument designation.” Soon after, multiple environmental groups drew up legal papers to challenge Trump’s final decision as soon as he makes it.
A 111-year-old law known as the Antiquities Act makes it possible for presidents to create national monuments. Since its passage in 1906, all but two presidents—Reagan and Trump—have. The law has survived an assortment of court challenges that have strengthened it. But the president’s authority to create a national monument of any size has not yet been tested in court.
If Trump decides to shrink any of the monuments under review, after Zinke makes his recommendations August 25, the law will surely face that final test.