Enlist Ivory Carvers to Help Save Elephants?
for National Geographic News
|June 26, 2003|
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Licensing and monitoring ivory carvers could effectively control the illegal poaching of elephants and, at the same time, ease the tensions between conservationists and African countries with ivory surpluses, according to new research.
Elephant conservation and the ivory trade are directly related; the higher the demand for ivory, the more elephants will be illegally killed. How to unlink them has been a matter of sometimes vitriolic debate between pro- and anti-ivory trade advocates.
"There are two contradictory problems," said Daniel Stiles, an anthropologist based in Kenya. "The elephants are threatened if ivory demand is too high, and so conservationists want to ban the sale of all ivory. On the other hand, ivory is a natural resource that African countries want to sell and put the money from the sales back into conservation. How do you reconcile the two?"
Gaining the cooperation of the ivory carvers could be the answer to elephant conservation, said Stiles.
"Raw ivory must pass through the hands of a carver to give it economic and aesthetic value. Shops selling carved ivory pieces have to obtain it from the carving workshop. The workshop is therefore the node for the movement of all ivory, whether legal or illegal."
It's incredibly expensive and difficult to stop elephant poaching using game rangers, he said. It would be much easier to police the carvers than the smugglers, or even retail shops, of which there are hundreds or possibly thousands.
"Convince the carvers to manufacture only high quality, high price, low volume pieces using ivory," said Stiles. "Use bone, bone resin, wood, jade, plastic, and other materials to make the high volume, low quality jewelry and trinkets that are currently being made. This would lower considerably the need for ivory."
Ivory: Boom to Bust
"The global ivory market became so big in the 1980s that African elephant populations were being wiped out," said Stiles. "Around 700,000 African elephants died between 1979 and 1990over half the total population."
The number of ivory carvers mushroomed to satisfy demand, and the tradition of highly skilled artisans creating artistic items of cultural significance for local markets was eschewed in favor of high volume, low quality jewelry and trinkets.
To curb the slaughter, a ban was placed on the international trade of ivory under a treaty known as the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES, rhymes with nighties). The ban went into effect in 1990.
While helping to stabilize African elephant populations, the ban also set the stage for an ongoing battle between conservationists and countries in Africa with stockpiles of ivory. In 1998, CITES estimated that 15 countries were storing a total of close to 200 tons (200,000 kilograms) of ivory.
Ivory stockpiles accumulate through the death of elephants due to natural causes, culling, government-regulation, problem-animal control, and confiscation of poached ivory.
Ivory-producing states argue that the sale of legal ivory can offset the considerable costs associated with elephants. Surplus elephant populations damage crops and destroy the habitat of other wildlife. Even in countries with sustainable elephant populations the cost is high; money is needed to enforce anti-poaching laws, to guard stockpiles, to run the parks, and, if necessary, to relocate elephants.
The money from stockpile sales is pumped back into elephant conservation.
In 1997, CITES delegates approved a one-time sale of 50 tons (50,000 kilograms) of surplus ivory by three southern African nations.
The sale, which took place in 1999, sparked a huge controversy. Advocates lauded it as an African solution for an African problem. Opponents argued that it increased ivory demand and thus fueled a surge in poaching. They also say it conveyed the wrong message to consumers, telling people that it's now all right to buy ivory.
"The big question is: What effect do limited sales of government stockpiles have on elephant populations?" said Stiles. "There's not a lot of data available. But the Asian experience could provide some clues."
The explosion in tourism and economic development in Asia starting in the 1970s contributed to the development of the ivory carving industry in Southeast Asia.
"When African ivory supplies were cut off in 1990 due to the CITES trade ban, poachers turned to Asian elephant populations," said Stiles. "Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia lost more than 60 percent of their elephants in 10 years. Since the mid-1990s, smuggling rings and routes between Africa and Asia have emerged."
Stiles and Esmond Martin, a wildlife trade expert, visited 22 cities in 15 African countries to assess local ivory markets in 1999 under the auspices of the group Save the Elephants, which opposes stockpile selling. Under a grant from the National Geographic Society, Stiles went on to conduct in-depth studies of the carvers in Southeast Asia. His results suggest a possible way forward.
Carved ivory sales in most Southeast Asian countries remained legal through much of the 1990s.
"Thailand has the largest ivory market of any country in Asia or Africa due to its 10 million tourists a year," said Stiles. "Large quantities of African and Burmese raw ivory and Chinese worked ivory, which comes raw from Africa, is being smuggled in to satisfy demand."
However, governments in the region are slowly cracking down, and trade is gradually collapsing. Thai police and customs agents conducted a raid in Phayuha Kiri, a village with around 30 ivory carving workshops, in December 2002. Thousands of pieces of raw and worked ivory were confiscated and workers were charged with tax and import violations.
The story in Vietnam is similar. Vietnam's elephant population fell from around 1,750 in 1990 to only 135 in 2000. Even trained timber elephants were poached. Vietnam banned ivory sales in 1995, and as the law becomes better enforced, fewer and fewer ivory carvers are working.
The Licensing Solution
The carvers want to continue working with ivory. Speaking to Stiles after the December 2002 raid in Phayuha Kiri, Thi Sangwanli explained the frustration he and fellow carvers feel.
"I am a third-generation ivory carver," said Sangwanli. "I've lost everything; what am I going to do now?"
By licensing only master craftsmen like Sangwanli, who would be responsible for ensuring that the ivory comes from a legitimate source, the carving industry can be swung back to producing high quality pieces, suggests Stiles. The jewelry and trinkets being created for the tourist trade can be made by lesser carvers using wood, stone, jade, or bone.
"In all of Asia, there probably aren't more than 300 master carvers," said Stiles. "There are huge amounts of ivory being produced in a manner that doesn't involve poaching. There's more than enough to sustain highly skilled craftsmen at current levels of demand."
In addition, allowing sales of surplus African ivory could have the added benefit of taking the pressure off of Asian elephants, he said.
Fight for Quotas
At the most recent CITES meeting, held in Santiago in November 2002, three African nations gained approval for another one-time sale of stockpiled ivory. The sale is not to take place before May 2004, to allow time for monitoring systems to be put in place.
But the real goal of ivory producing nations is the eventual establishment of annual quotas. This can only work if demand is reduced, said Stiles.
"A complete ban on ivory would actually be a loss," he said. "A cultural loss, and an artistic loss. After seeing and studying some of the ivory carvings being produced, it's amazingly beautiful."
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