Between 45,000 and 28,000 years ago, Neandertals and early
humans coexisted in Europe until the Neandertals died out. Why humans
survived and Neandertals didn't has long puzzled experts. A seven-year
study by 30 scientists suggests climate change triggered Neandertals'
A chance find has led Russian researchers to unearth a trove of
31,000-year-old hunting tools made from wolf bone, rhinoceros horn, and
mammoth tusk along central Siberia's Yana River. The discovery suggests
early humans colonized the rugged lands of Arctic Siberia almost twice
as early as previously thought.
Deftly carved figurines, including one that is half man, half lion, suggest that people living in what is now Germany were culturally modern 30,000 years ago. The newly discovered artifacts fuel the debate on when humans crossed the threshold into cultural modernity.