National Geographic News
Looters dig through the sand, sifting and unearthing Roman and Pharaonic antiquities to sell on June 26, 2013 in Sheikh Ibada, Egypt.

Looters dig for artifacts at Antinopolis.


Dan Vergano

National Geographic

Published June 3, 2014

Looters will strip Egypt of most of its archaeological heritage within the next quarter century, an archaeologist warned at a U.S. State Department hearing this week.

"Wholesale looting is occurring all over Egypt, and we are seeing a big spike that came after the revolution," says archaeologist Sarah Parcak, who testified on Monday, opening a three-day hearing at the State Department. "If we don't do something to stop it, most sites in Egypt will be gone in 25 years."

Satellites, including some that are part of a program spearheaded by Parcak, have revealed that the illicit digging in Egypt is widespread. (Related: "Looters Shatter Museum.")

Looting of archaeological sites and thefts from museums have afflicted Egypt since the political upheaval of 2011. In March, Egypt requested that the U.S. adopt new rules that would empower U.S. Customs officials to seize looted antiquities from that country, the subject of this week's hearing.

World Heritage sites are among the looters' targets, said Parcak, of the University of Alabama-Birmingham, who is also a National Geographic fellow.

Her satellite survey project, funded in part by the National Geographic Society, examines more than 4,000 archaeological sites in Egypt using Google Earth satellite imagery. Although preliminary, the survey finds tens of thousands of looting pits dotting the landscape, Parcak says, many of them recent.

Home of fabled pyramids, tombs, and ancient treasures, Egypt harbors the ruins of one of the world's most storied civilizations, a cradle of mankind. At the hearing, antiquities experts faced off with coin dealers, largely over whether the import restrictions requested by Egypt will help halt the pillaging.

Even before it began, the hearing attracted hundreds of public comments from both sides, most of them from coin collectors calling for an exemption from the proposed restrictions.

Evidence of looting as shown here in this satellite image of South Dashur, Egypt, May 21, 2011.
Looting holes can be seen from space at a South Dashur, Egypt, archaeological site in 2011.
Evidence of looting as shown here in this satellite image of South Dashur, Egypt, March 1, 2013.
A satellite photo shows extensive looting at the same site just two years later.

U.S. Demand Fueling Antiquities Trade

Fueling the digging is burgeoning demand from the U.S., which in 2013 imported some ten million dollars' worth of Egyptian antiquities, according to experts such as Erin Thompson of City University of New York.

Papyrus fragments of interest to biblical scholars are already being sold online from looted sites, according to testimony at the hearing.

"We'll never stop looting. We can only slow it down," says Egyptian art expert David O'Connor of the American Research Center in Egypt, who also testified at the hearing. His group supports the import restrictions, which he called "a significant way of inhibiting the pillaging in Egypt."

Before 2011, Egyptian officials saw about 1,200 looting cases every year, according to government data. The number has since doubled, spurred in part by economic hard times. The tourism industry, which supported roughly 10 percent of the Egyptian economy, was particularly hard-hit after the revolution, making archaeological sites more attractive and vulnerable to looters.

Coin dealers such as Wayne Sayles of Gainesville, Missouri, who testified at Monday's hearing, argued for exemption from new import rules for coins. He noted that coins were meant to be traded and were already in wide circulation, and he said that the threat of U.S. Customs impoundments would hurt small businesses. "You are going to have a situation where small coin collectors are pushed out."

Mounds of broken pottery and debris from an ancient site sit relatively untouched on June 26, 2013 in Sheikh Ibada, Egypt.
Pottery sherds litter the ground at the site of ancient Antinopolis, which is threatened by looting in Egypt.

From Shovels to Bulldozers

Ancient coins, fragments of papyrus, or broken jars often seem inconsequential compared to wares from royal tombs, said Brown University's Laurel Bestock. But experts must study antiquities in their original setting and groupings to gain any insights into the ancient world.

Egyptian archaeologist Monica Hanna testified at the hearing that organized looters are using bulldozers to pillage some sites. Egypt employs about 1,200 guards at archaeological sites, but most make only about $40 a week.

The committee asked coin and art dealers at the hearing what prevented them from better documenting their wares to prove they are legal, a sticking point often raised about the proposed import restrictions.

At the same time, archaeologists were questioned sharply about the true extent of the damage, whether Egypt is doing enough to halt the looting, and whether the proposed restrictions would actually affect the market for looted antiquities.

The advisory committee considering the proposal, headed by DePaul University antiquities law expert Patty Gerstenblith, is scheduled to continue discussing the Egyptian request until Wednesday, when it will make a recommendation on the new law to the State Department.

Egyptian officials will testify about the request in closed sessions later this week.

Follow Dan Vergano on Twitter.

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Wei Du
Wei Du

What happens if all the artifacts are in Egyptian national museums and a Taliban like government takes over...

Public institutions should not be the sole proprietor of cultural heritage.  

wayne sayles
wayne sayles

As one who was at the CPAC hearing and one who is quoted in the above article, I find this "news" report oddly misleading and biased—not what I would expect from National Geographic, much less from a senior writer-editor and adjunct NYU professor—but rather from the archaeological blogosphere.  One might start with the subtitle, "Officials and coin dealers debate proposed restrictions on antiquities."  I somehow managed to miss that debate between Mr. Tompa and myself on one hand and the "Officials", whoever they might be, on the other.  If, by officials, the reporter means CPAC members (appointed to represent the public), the reported "debate" was most certainly not apparent to me.  In fact, I was quite impressed with the rational and insightful questions asked by committee members and equally impressed with the fair-minded consideration of the Chair who allowed responses in depth.  The "coin dealers" were actually represented by Mr. Tompa, a Washington attorney.  My own comments were clearly prefaced as Founder and Executive Director of the Ancient Coin Collectors Guild, a non-profit coin collector advocacy group.  That this article should characterize the hearing as a "debate" between dealers and officials is far off the mark, even for the media.

In quoting me, Dan Vergano chose the solitary line, "You are going to have a situation where small coin collectors are pushed out."  True enough that I said that or something very close to that.  But, the quote begs the point which was explained in some detail to the committee.  The governing law dictates that only objects first found within and under export control of the requesting State Party may be restricted from importation.  The U.S. State Department and Customs and Border Protection have failed to adhere to this congressional mandate.  Therefore, adding coins to any MOU is essentially and erroneously construed by many in the federal bureaucracy as a broad sweeping prohibition or embargo.  That obviously has a direct and negative impact on coin collectors.  What Mr. Vergano might have said is that the Ancient Coin Collectors Guild publicly supported the MOU (a conveniently ignored fact) but appealed to CPAC for an exemption on common, widely circulated, coins for a multitude of legal and practical reasons.

There is much more that could be said about the coverage above, but it will suffice to say that in my opinion it falls short of the bar one would normally expect from National Geographic.  I don't mean to sound ungrateful for the mention, but I would rather be quoted within the context of my comments.

Peter Lacovara
Peter Lacovara

Many of these sites, like Antinopolis, are being destroyed for land reclaimation.  This emphasis on looters is a distraction from the real problem.  We need better policing of sites in Egypt, not laws in the  U.S.  This will do nothing to prevent the destruction.

Robert Deutsch
Robert Deutsch

The Egyptians just demanded the return of the sphinx fragment found by Amnon Ben-Tor in Hazor !. And I ask myself, don't they have first to protect their own sites? And I ask myself, where are the "returned" finds from Kuntillet Ajrud? Are they going to see the light of the sun again? or they will remain in the underworld of Osiris forever? In any event, I just wonder since when are the Arab population of Egypy consider the ancient Egyptions as their ancestors? I just wonder.

Tom Mariner
Tom Mariner

No problem for Egypt -- Just as in the past, they just wait until they get civilized again, then demand that the rest of the world return (for free) all of their "stolen" treasures that were purchased from Egyptians the government could not stop and who purported to be legit.


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