National Geographic News
A late-afternoon sun illuminates part of the Brito Inlet, Dec. 26, 2013, which Nicaragua says is the likely Pacific Coast outlet of a planned interoceanic canal to rival that of Panama.

The Brito Inlet (above) is a likely outlet for Nicaragua's first canal.


Roff Smith

National Geographic

Published March 29, 2014

For nearly a century the Panama Canal has been the only game in town for anyone who wanted to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific without making the long voyage around Cape Horn.

In that time more than a million ships, from bulk carriers to cruise liners to nuclear submarines, have passed through its locks, taking advantage of the world's most famous shortcut.

Panama's canal may (or may not) soon face stiff competition. Last June Nicaragua's National Assembly overwhelmingly approved a plan to grant a Chinese company, the Hong Kong–based HKND Group, exclusive rights to build a canal spanning the country.

The planned canal could be about 175 miles (282 kilometers) long, more than three times the length of Panama's, with locks big enough to accommodate even colossal new container ships. Up to a quarter of a mile (0.4 kilometers) long, these behemoths can carry more than 18,000 shipping containers—enough to deliver a million flat-screen TVs or 148 million pairs of running shoes from factories in the Far East to markets in the West.

Map of Nicaragua, the route of the new planned Nicaragua Canal, and distance to the Panama Canal.
SOURCES: Unidad SIG; Ministerio Agropecuario y Forestal, Nicaragua; IUCN; UNEP;Gran Canal Interoceánico por Nicaragua; HKND Group

The project approved by the Nicaraguan legislature also includes provisions for the construction of two deepwater ports, two free-trade shipping zones, an international airport, an oil pipeline, and a railway. Total cost: $40 billion (U.S.)—a sum nearly four times Nicaragua's national gross domestic product.

Digging is set to begin this December, and if all goes according to plan, Nicaragua could be in the canal business by the end of the decade.

It's been a dream a long time in the making. For much of the 19th century, Nicaragua was the favored location, ahead of Panama, for a canal through the Americas. France's Emperor Napoleon III and American financiers Cornelius Vanderbilt and J. P. Morgan were but three of the century's big names who tried to get a canal built in Nicaragua. But variously, wars and revolutions, bankruptcies, politics, and scarcity of investors back home kept it from happening.

A boat navigates lake Cocibolca, also known as Lake Nicaragua, near Granada, Nicaragua.
A boat navigates Lake Cocibolca, also known as Lake Nicaragua. The canal could jeopardize the lake, as links to the ocean could introduce salinity, and oil spills could contaminate the water.

Whose Reality?

Nicaragua's leaders claim the new canal will transform their country from an impoverished Central American backwater to a global trade powerhouse, create hundreds of thousands of jobs, and boost annual economic growth to a world-beating 14.6 percent.

For the Chinese, having a canal capable of handling huge bulk carriers would mean easier access to Venezuelan oil and Brazilian iron ore and soybeans, not to mention a valuable geopolitical foothold in the Americas.

But many economists, scientists, and sociologists say that the time for a Nicaraguan canal has long since lapsed, that the waterway—if it's ever completed—will end up being the world's costliest boondoggle.

The Panama Canal, they say, which has gigantic new locks scheduled to be operational next year, is more than capable of meeting future demand. They also cite projections for global warming that suggest ships could traverse an ice-free Arctic by the middle of the century, further reducing demand for passage through Central America.

And they warn that a canal through Nicaragua could be an environmental disaster, destroying more than a million acres of rain forest, jeopardizing Lake Nicaragua—Central America's largest source of fresh water—and disrupting the lives of indigenous people, while delivering few, if any, of the promised benefits to ordinary Nicaraguans.

Wang Jing, CEO of Xinwei Telecom Enterprise Group, speaks during an interview in front of a painting featuring the late Communist leader Mao Zedong and his Red Army commanders in a meeting room of the company's headquarters in Beijing, China, Sunday, Sept. 1, 2013.
The Chinese company HKND Group was granted a 50-year concession to develop the canal; Wang Jing (above) is the company's chairman and chief executive.

Some Mysteries

Nine months before ground breaking is set to start on the biggest and costliest civil engineering project in Central American history, such basic details as the very design of the canal, what route it will take across the country, and precisely where financing will come from remain a mystery—at least to the general public.

Little is known about the company that's been granted the concession, or about its enigmatic chairman and chief executive, 41-year-old Wang Jing. In a rare interview in the Financial Times last June, he described himself as "a very ordinary Chinese citizen" who lives in Beijing with his mother, younger brother, and daughter. His profile on the HKND website states that he is on the board of 20 companies, doing business in 35 countries.

For a very ordinary Chinese citizen, Wang is doing quite well: Forbes ranks him as number 1,210 on its list of the world's richest people, with an estimated net worth of $1.4 billion (U.S.). He is described as having made his pile in telecommunications. While his domestic ventures appear robust, his companies' projects overseas have met with "spotty" success, according to a story published in the South China Morning Post not long after he signed the deal to build the canal.

Among the stalled projects: installation of a national wireless network in Nicaragua said to be worth $700 million (U.S.), of which there was still no sign more than a year after Wang announced the go-ahead.

Nevertheless, HKND's canal proposal was hustled through Nicaragua's National Assembly in just three days. There were no other bidders.

How a firm with no proven record in heavy engineering, let alone experience with a project of this scale and complexity, could have been awarded the canal concession, and why such a multibillion-dollar public works project was not put out to open tender, are questions economists, engineers, and environmentalists are asking.

A woman bathes her son at Lake Cocibolca, also known as Lake of Nicaragua March 21, 2012.
A woman bathes her son at Lake Cocibolca, the largest lake in Central America and a vital potential reservoir for drinking water.

Carte Blanche for HKND

"This is highly unusual and worrisome," says Pedro Alvarez, a professor of civil engineering at Rice University in Houston, Texas, and himself a Nicaraguan. "The whole affair has lacked transparency, open bidding, independent assessment, and opportunities for multiple stakeholders to provide input."

By any reckoning, Wang Jing and his backers—widely believed to be the Chinese government—have landed a sweet deal. Under the agreement, HKND has exclusive rights to build and operate the canal for 50 years, extendable for another 50. The company can keep all the income, will be exempt from taxes for a century, and will enjoy a breathtaking degree of legal immunity. The Nicaraguan government assumes liability for any cleanup costs for environmental damage and irrevocably waives its own sovereign immunity, which means HKND is free to sue for any loss or damages.

The terms of the deal are so generous and far-reaching that parts of Nicaragua's constitution had to be rewritten to allow for them.

In exchange for all this, HKND agreed to give the Nicaraguan government a one percent shareholding in the canal for each year of operation.

"I have never seen such an apparently unilateral relinquishment of a country's sovereignty," Alvarez says, "and such a bad deal for the host, which makes many observers wonder what kinds of behind-the-curtain deals might have been made."

HKND will have carte blanche to put the canal anywhere it sees fit, acquire any land needed for the project by right of eminent domain, and hold rights to whatever minerals are found during construction.

"Would they make it go through downtown Managua?" asks Jorge A. Huete-Pérez, president of the Nicaraguan Academy of Sciences. "The concession was given without an established route. Normally by law you would have to produce a full environmental impact assessment to proceed with such a project, and go through the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. But with this, it all rests in the hands of the Canal Authority [the local body charged with overseeing construction]."

Instead of commissioning an independent environmental study of its own, the Nicaraguan government will rely on one contracted out by HKND to a U.K.-based global consulting firm, Environmental Resources Management. HKND is under no obligation to make public the results.

Neither HKND nor Environmental Resources Management responded to requests for interviews, but HKND says on its website that the company "is committed to explore this area with great care and to adhere to international standards of environmental responsibility as it proceeds."

Opponents of President Daniel Ortega's government clash with police officers during a demonstration in front of the National Assembly Building in Managua June 13, 2013.
Opponents of President Daniel Ortega's government clash with police officers during a demonstration in front of the National Assembly Building in Managua on June 13, 2013.

For Greens, the Blues

Huete-Pérez and Axel Meyer, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Konstanz in Germany, who has been conducting field research in Nicaragua since 1984, coauthored a piece in Nature last month highlighting the canal's risks to the environment. They called for an independent assessment of the project by an international panel of experts.

"The fact that the Chinese are involved made it seem very possible to me that this thing could really go ahead," Meyer says. "The Chinese have very deep pockets, think strategically and in the long term, and they have geopolitical reasons for wanting to have their own canal in the Americas. They're also not known for being particularly good guardians of the environment."

The probable route of the canal would cut through the northern corner of Cerro Silva Nature Reserve, and, according to Huete-Pérez and Meyer, in the entire canal corridor nearly a million acres of rain forest and wetlands will be destroyed.

Construction impacts would also be felt in such sensitive and wild places as the UNESCO-designated 7,700-square-mile (19,942-square-kilometer) Bosawás Biosphere Reserve. The reserve contains the second largest rain forest in the Western Hemisphere, after the Amazon Basin forest. Also affected will be the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve, 1,700 square miles (4,402 square kilometers) of similarly pristine tropical dry forest along the San Juan River.

The San Juan itself would need to be dammed to regulate the water needed to operate the locks in the canal.

Mangroves and sea turtle nesting sites on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts would be bulldozed, coral reefs destroyed, and the migratory corridors of jaguars and other animals interrupted.

The lives of indigenous people, such as the Rama, Garifuna, Miskito, and Ulwa, would be undermined or destroyed, with hundreds of villages evacuated to make way for the canal and its accompanying infrastructure.

And then there's Lake Nicaragua, known locally as Cocibolca. Whichever route the canal takes, it will certainly include the expanse of Lake Nicaragua. At just over 3,100 square miles (8,029 square kilometers), it's the largest lake in Central America and a vital potential reservoir for drinking water. (As little as 2 percent of the lake's outflow into the Río San Juan could satisfy the clean-water needs of Nicaragua's six million people.)

The canal could jeopardize that freshwater resource, warns Salvadore Montenegro-Guillén, a professor of hydrology at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua in Managua. Links to the ocean could introduce salinity; oil spills could contaminate the water.

Another risk is that freighters pumping bilgewater into the lake could release invasive species. That alone could devastate an ecosystem considered a poster child for evolutionary biology, with its rich assemblages of endemic fish that have evolved in the 500,000-year-old lake.

No Fun for the Engineers

The canal will present monumental engineering challenges. "The lake is very shallow," Montenegro-Guillén says. "In the dry season on Lake Cocibolca, even the local barges with their five-foot [1.5-meter] drafts have troubles with the bottom of the lake."

To make practical their vision of the world's largest container ships steaming across the lake, the Chinese say they'll dredge a channel 30 yards (27 meters) deep, 569 yards (520 meters) wide, and 56 miles (90 kilometers) long.

"To clear a channel like that means they will need to be dredging up 1.3 billion tonnes [1.4 billion short tons] of mud, sand, and stone," Montenegro-Guillén says. "That's a mountain of material to be disposed of somewhere."

"Not only will dredging the channel impact the lake's ecosystem," he says, "but the lake itself will impact the channel, as the currents will transport sediment back into the channel very swiftly and very efficiently."

While dredging is part and parcel of maintaining a canal to keep it silt-free, the amount of work that would be required to keep a Nicaraguan canal from silting up would be extremely costly. "I calculate that if the U.S. had gone ahead with their plan to built a canal here in the late 19th century, it would have had to have been rebuilt—not only re-dredged—23 times in the past 115 years," Montenegro-Guillén says.

A fisherman casts a net over the waters of Lake Cocibolca, also known as Lake of Nicaragua March 21, 2012.
A fisherman casts a net over the waters of Lake Cocibolca.

Chicanery for Panama

In the spring of 1902, as debate flared in the U.S. Senate over whether to choose Panama or Nicaragua for a new canal, an enterprising PR man for the Panamanian lobby planted a story in the press that Nicaragua's iconic volcano, Momotombo, was erupting.

Protests by the Nicaraguan lobby that Momotombo was in fact dormant fell on deaf ears, thanks to one of the country's postage stamps, depicting an apparently lively Momotombo puffing majestically over the jungles near Lake Managua. The Panamanian lobby made sure a copy of the stamp was sent around to every U.S. senator and congressman.

Then, one month before the senate vote, an eruption on the Caribbean island of Martinique killed 30,000 people and destroyed much of the island. That swayed fence-sitters, and Panama won the canal by eight votes.

It was a good call, Montenegro-Guillén says. Nicaragua "is seismically active, and the hydraulic design of the canal, regardless of route chosen, relies on the construction of a dam. The risk of an earthquake collapsing a structure that's holding back 16 million cubic meters of water is quite high. And that would be catastrophic."

A man pushes his bicycle after catching fish from the Cocibolca Lake at the town of La Virgen May 16, 2013.
A man leaves Lake Cocibolca carrying the fish he caught.

All in Favor?

Despite the slew of concerns, most Nicaraguans seem to favor the canal. "Almost everybody, in fact, was cautiously optimistic, except maybe the fishermen who were worried for their livelihoods," the University of Konstanz's Meyer says. "And it's easy to understand why. This is a very poor country, and they have been told the canal is going to bring them jobs and prosperity."

Adolfo Acevedo, one of Nicaragua's most respected economists, warns that the benefits will at best be modest. "It's true that building the infrastructure for such a canal would produce an important temporary boom in economic activity," he writes in an essay titled "The Canal and the Illusion of Development." Offsetting that, he says, is the fact that much of the skilled labor and machinery will need to be imported.

Rice University's Alvarez is equally dubious. "No megaproject can lift Nicaragua out of poverty while its population remains largely uneducated. Investment in education to begin to build a knowledge-based economy is the only credible road to get out of poverty. This will require some international help, as well as financial discipline, transparent governance, and smarter management of our natural resources."

Alvarez says he doubts the canal will ever be completed, mainly because of "unaccounted costs and technical challenges, as well as questionable feasibility."

But he allows that the Nicaraguan government is very motivated to do the project, "despite the poor track record of Wang Jing's companies in terms of meeting expectations."

For Alvarez, the "biggest concern is beginning something that will not be completed, wasting resources, displacing people and wildlife, causing irreparable damage to the environment, and raising false hopes."

Amy Baruh
Amy Baruh

okay it's great everyone is worried about the environmental affects but lets no forget about the extremely large amounts of human beings who's live are being destroyed from this. they have already begun talking about whose lands they will take. theses farmers live off there land they have nothing else and what will the government pay them back with? empty promises that won't hold up. Nicaragua has great potential to be a great country WITHOUT a canal and most certainly WITHOUT Daniel Ortega and the Sandinista party.

Phil Blank
Phil Blank

Wait until is finished, then stop buying all products stamped "Made in China" or "Made in Hon Kong".

Jack Matkin
Jack Matkin

Looks to me like a hit piece on this project.  The Chinese will do it.  Its a big statement of their power in the Western Hemisphere.   I expect them to split the lake into two, "the Chinese say they'll dredge a channel 30 yards (27 meters) deep, 569 yards (520 meters) wide, and 56 miles (90 kilometers) long." which will mean 3000 feet on either side of the channel across the lake will be filled in.  That's what I would do.  Then its just a matter of circulation and water levels between the two lakes.  There will be no initial contamination as the canal and lake will be physically separated.  Fishing in the canal should be banned to try to prevent foreign species from getting in the lake.  A ban at least makes the community conscious of good practices needed to avoid the lake going bad.  The construction should be pretty easy compared to the original Panama canal, although I wonder if they have the port infrastructure in place to provide fuel and supplies for this project.  Today's modern equipment is pretty impressive.  The earth moving is going to be interesting and if they go through forests how they extract the timber.  I would guess a mile to either side of the project is going to be affected.  Big project in relatively pristine country, funny all the industrialized countries got to destroy their environments and now we're complaining about this country doing one big project. The country will still be better off environmentally as far as ecosystems than any of the big industrial countries.  The world's growing population is the problem, we haven't learned the limits of our ability to coexist with the natural world.  Some people think we're way past sustainability, which means a fight until every nonrenewable resource is used up and then implosion.  Bright future, eh?

Doug Wenzel
Doug Wenzel

Besides all the ecological damage outlined above, the canal will be a boondoggle. To steal share from the canal in Panama, the total cost of a transit will need to be lower than in Panama, but the longer route means each transit will require three times the pilot and tug hours, and the canal authority will need to do three times as much maintenance dredging. 

Yi Gwang-won
Yi Gwang-won

i doubt the canal is really uesful and helpful for the Nicaraguan. Have Egyptian and Panaman received to get paid much historically?

Mike Quinn
Mike Quinn

I thank Mr. Smith for this article on the prospects for an interoceanic canal in Nicaragua. As someone living here in Nicaragua (come and visit by the way...) there are definitely mixed emotions to the prospects of this project actually being started and/or completed. 

Nicaragua could use the boost economically, but in the long run, the environmental damages could really hurt what is so beautiful about this country (besides the lovely friendly people who live here...) the wide open spaces and fascinating natural environment. 

I enjoy listening to Librivox free public domain audiobooks and did a search on "Nicaragua" a while ago and found an absolutely wonderful lecture by an engineer from an edition of the National Geographic Magazine from 1888 titled "Across Nicaragua with Transit and Machéte, by R. E. Peary (1856-1920)" 

In his findings presented to the Society, Mr. Peary heartely endorses construction of a canal in Nicaragua and lists several advantages, which still hold true today. So, it gives the reader/listener a good understanding of the historical context of the prospective canal. I blogged about it here:

Cheers, Mike @ Farmstay El Portón Verde, Managua

Allen Alexander
Allen Alexander

Not a good thing, look how well the canal in Panama worked out for it's people.

Andrew Booth
Andrew Booth

I just wonder how many species of plants and animals will be destroyed by such a project. Many rain forest species have evolved to inhabit small and unique locations such as a single hillside, a single river bank, a single valley or even a single tree! I believe the Lake Nicaragua shark is also unique (a freshwater shark) and that could be at risk from noise, disturbance, pollution or the loss of prey. 

The political aspects of China's control of the canal, her presence in the Americas and geographic proximity to the US are another matter entirely. 

R. Rapp
R. Rapp

The March 10, 2014, issue of The New Yorker has an article about this proposed canal that provides more information from the economic, political, and historical perspectives. See "THE COMANDANTE’S CANAL" (subscription required).


Good for them, we have certainly abused that poor nation half to death during the Rightwing Drug Industry expansions of the 1980's.  Ronnie Raygun would be rolling in his grave if he knew his death sqauds failed so miserably.

craig hill
craig hill

Inasmuch as there is a global economic tussle occurring between China and the US, with China making huge inroads on the world stage in Africa and South America, the US responding by trying to cut off deals oil-rich nations have completed with China, mostly in Africa (which exports more oil than Saudi Arabia), i believe the Nicaraguan Canal will proceed to fruition. As soon as the Chinese announced they'd fund and build it a year ago, the US quickly chimed in, Oh, we'll give billions to the construction too so long as we have a hand in its use as well, not wanting to be shut out of what will be a much larger canal, able to take in enormous sizes of ships the Panama Canal, even after its enlargement, finished earlier this year, cannot.

My guess is, considering the usual Chinese secrecy, the Chinese builders are keeping the exact route under wraps to avoid criticism no matter which route is taken. And they most certainly have the money to do it, which is why the fading US is the junior partner in this deal.

Steve Baker
Steve Baker

"... the biggest and costliest civil engineering project in South American history." That truly is a "mystery" since, last time I looked, Nicaragua was in North America not South America. Editing as an art form is really in decline, have you noticed?


Ecologically devastating, economically unnecessary.

Lar Ben
Lar Ben

Line a hundred pockets with wealth unimagined and Millions of lives and eons of Eco-developement erased. 


@Amy Baruh  I respectfully disagree with you. Past presidents with neoliberals ideas and systems of governments did not help the majority of the population. Now with Daniel Ortega, Nicaragua is finally on the right track to become a great country for the betterment of the poor population.

Phil Blank
Phil Blank

How does fishing bring foreign species?

Those ar usually bought in by discharged balast water.

Or in the Asian carp case in the US, by floods down south releasing them.

Ralf Vastag
Ralf Vastag

@Yi Gwang-won - A substantial part of the Panamanian GDP is attributable to the canal ... in fact, Panama has one of the highest GDPs per capita in Latin America.

craig hill
craig hill

@Steve Baker  Wrong again, Central America is part of neither North nor South America.

But yes, it's scary to see the decline in spelling, punctuation and fact-checking from supposedly authoritative sources like Nat Geo. We're either entering a Dark Age or it's the beginning of the end.

Ralf Vastag
Ralf Vastag

@Phil Blank - I think if people fish out of the canal, they may throw some of their caught fish into the lake, thus potentially introducing foreign species.

Randy Whitehead
Randy Whitehead

@craig hill @Steve Baker  Craig, don't be so quick to correct Steve without checking your facts.  Nicaragua, is in North America. Central America is not a continent, it is merely a geographic area in the southern most part of the North American continent.  You can say it is in Central America, and be correct if referring to it as a geographic area or subcontinent, but you aren't correct at all if you say it is not in North America.

I was rather surprised though to the see an article in National Geographic indicate that it is South America.

Randy Whitehead
Randy Whitehead

" the see...",  what a typo, sorry about that.

Hildebrand Romero
Hildebrand Romero

@Randy Whitehead  Its is Central America. Is not a sub continent.America is a Continent. But most of us call America to just the Anglo speaking, north side of the Continent. America one whole continent and divided in North America, Central America, and South America. By the way I'm from Nicaragua. Central America.


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