With all respect to all scientist and National Geographic
- The very first theory and research about the headwaters of the Apurímac River and the ultimate source of the Amazon was done by czech Prof. Dr. Bohumir Jansky and his peruvian colleague Prof. Dr. Carlos Penaherrera del Aguila in year 1969 - two years before National Geographic expedition led by Loren McIntyre!
-In 1995 Jansky conducted another expedition of Faculty of Science from Charles University in Prague "Peru 95", which also visited Carhuasanta river valley at the foot of Nevado Mismi, and made an initial examination of the terrain of the area.
-During the expedition "Hatun Mayu 99" (16.06 - 03.07 1999) was measured the length of the river Carhuasanta from the confluence with the river Apacheta. Using GPS were located two springs of Carhuasanta river at the foot of Nevado Mismi: left spring flowing from the glacial lake "Laguna" and the right spring, which rises from the rock crevices and at the end of June 1999 had a yield of 20 l / s (The most of all sources).
-During the Czech-Peruvian expedition "Hatun Mayu 2000 'were using a laser rangefinder LEM TM 30 measured the length of three other headwater streams of the river Lloqueta - Sillanque, Apacheta and Ccaccansy. Using GPS the springs were located and determined the altitude of their sources. Using hydrometric propeller C 20 companies Ott were regularly measured flow of these rivers.
-All the field work was finished by 10. of July, 2000. On 11. of July 2000 at the bottom of the river valley Lloqueta was expedition of Mr.Jansky visited by protagonists of the National Geographic Society expedition - Mr Andrew Pietowski and Andrew Johnston, who came to the site by helicopter and who just got to know about success of the Czech - Peruvian expedition from the daily press in Lima and Arequipa! Sounds funny no?
-Although both groups agreed that each will contribute their results for common work, Pietowski and Johnston later didn't hesitate to announced that the discovery and the priority accurate assessment of the sources belong to them. This fundamentally reject a claim that the first assessment of the lengths of streams and springs were localizated by Czech expedition "Hatun Mayu 99" and Czech-Peruvian expedition "Hatun Mayu 2000".
- Johnston and Pietowski apologized to Jansky for their unfair behavior after ten years!!!on conference in Washington DC - but National Geographic instead of putting shame on them is still using their names - in this article just name of Mr. McIntyre and Mr. Johnston...
Can Jane J. Lee pls verified my words - call to Mr. Johnston and ask him for a public responsibility before due to global warming some other ice caps will melt down and Amazon river gonna gets a new more distant point of its beginning. Because this article is not part of the true about searching for sources of Amazon river!
Expresses doubts over setting the spring at the foot of Nevado Mismi at the height of 5509 m at this altitude during the period of June, the peak of the winter season in the southern hemisphere, taken there is no permanent water flow, but only long-term snow cover. In another part of the spring can not provide because they are due to snow melting occurs even number of periodic flows.
When determining the main stream in the hydrography - the criteria are used in the following order even in US, or Poland: the length of a steady flow along with the altitude source, catchment area, flow.
National Geographic Society expedition failed to identify the main source account or a catchment area or river flows.
And the results of Hatun Mayu expeditions can explain a lot even for this article:
The longest river is permanent Ccaccansa, which also has the highest altitude of the spring, but of all headwater streams has the smallest flow.
Farthest point from the mouth of the Amazon River Basin in the Atlantic is top of the mountain Nevado Mismi from which water flows into the basin Carhuasanta. Carhuasanta also has the largest catchment area of all tributaries in the area.
The largest flow before the confluence has Apacheta river.
The source is not just one!
Thank You for reading!