National Geographic Daily News
An illustration of Abraham on a camel.

Abraham journeys into the Land of Canaan by camel in a 19th-century Bible illustration.

PHOTOGRAPH BY KEN WELSH, DESIGN PICS/ CORBIS

Mairav Zonszein

for National Geographic

Published February 10, 2014

Newly published research by two archaeologists at Tel Aviv University in Israel shows that camels weren't domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean until the 10th century B.C.—several centuries after the time they appear in the Bible.

While there are conflicting theories about when the Bible was composed, the recent research suggests it was written much later than the events it describes. This supports earlier studies that have challenged the Bible's veracity as a historic document.

The biblical angle wasn't the focus of the recent research, though, just an after-the-fact observation.

The study, published late last year in Tel Aviv: Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, concerned the introduction of domesticated camels at copper smelting sites in Israel's Aravah Valley.

The dromedary, or one-humped camel that so many tourists picture when they think of the Middle East, is mentioned in the Bible 47 times. Stories about the Jewish patriarchs—Abraham, Joseph, and Jacob—include descriptions of camels as domesticated animals. For example, Genesis 24:11 says, "And he made his camels to kneel down without the city by a well of water at the time of the evening, even the time that women go out to draw water."

Historians believe these stories took place between 2000 and 1500 B.C., based on clues such as passages from Genesis, archaeological information from the site of the great Sumerian city of Ur (located in modern Iraq), and an archive of clay tablets found at the site of Mari (in modern Syria).

Using radiocarbon dating and evidence unearthed in excavations, Israeli archaeologists Erez Ben-Yosef and Lidar Sapir-Hen have pegged the arrival of domesticated camels in this part of the world—known to scholars as the Levant—to a much later era. They were also able to more precisely pinpoint the time span when that arrival occurred.

A photo of a camel. ” width=
PHOTOGRAPH BY SHARON PERRY, REUTERS
In a part of Israel that borders the Negev and Judean deserts, Bedouins bring camels to a cultural festival.

"By analyzing archaeological evidence from the copper production sites of the Aravah Valley, we were able to estimate the date of this event in terms of decades rather than centuries," Ben-Yosef said in a press release put out by Tel Aviv University last week.

The study was able to "narrow down the range in which domesticated camels were introduced to 30 years," said Sapir-Hen, an archaeozoologist who studies the role of animals in ancient human culture, in a phone interview. It's "sometime between 930 and 900 B.C."

Copper and Camels

The Aravah Valley marks the Israeli-Jordanian border as it runs from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea. This area was a center of copper production beginning as early as the 14th century B.C. and ending in the late 9th century B.C.

Archaeologists have identified an interesting pattern in their studies of animal remains from sites in this valley. Large quantities of camel bones appear only in the levels dated from the last third of the 10th century through the 9th century B.C.

The camels appear suddenly, following major changes in copper production throughout the region.

This period coincides with the invasion of Egyptian king Sheshonq I—known in the Bible as Shishak-in 925 B.C.

Archaeologists now wonder if the events are connected. After Egypt conquered the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, it may have reorganized the copper business and introduced camels as a more efficient means of transport than the donkeys and mules used previously.

This would have had huge economic and social consequences for the Levant, opening it to parts of the world that lay beyond vast deserts, to which it had never before been connected.

Camels were probably first domesticated in the Arabian Peninsula in the early first millennium B.C. Archaeologists base this date on mortality profiles of excavated skeletons, the gender of the animals, and lesions on leg bones that would have resulted from the repetitive stress of working as pack animals.

The Arabian Peninsula borders the Aravah Valley, which would have been a logical gateway for camels into the Levant. In fact, Ben-Yosef and Sapir-Hen believe that the domesticated camels buried at sites in the Aravah Valley may have been among the first such creatures to leave Arabia.

Archaeological excavations in the Aravah Valley have turned up bones of camels from earlier periods, perhaps even before the start of the Neolithic (about 9,700 B.C.), but those were probably wild animals that ran free, never burdened with the weight of copper ingots on their back.

76 comments
Alia Scott
Alia Scott

The only thing that this research can prove is that camels were not widely used in copper production areas until around 900 B.C.  that does not mean that they were an unknown species for domestication.  Keep in mind that the Bible records Abraham as an international transient, who traveled a great distance from Southern Iraq to Egypt.  It also records him as a man of great wealth, with herds of many types of animals. 

Bear with me... Just because most people don't have a Mercedes in the U.S,  doesn't mean that Mercedes is an unknown type of transportation to our society. And if you go to the local junk yard, or used car dealership, you will find primarily parts that belong to a Honda, Toyota, Ford, Chevy...etc...So in 2,000 years when archaeologists discover an ancient junk yard, they will come to the conclusion that only Hondas, Toyotas, Chevys and Fords existed, and any lingering stories or texts that include an exotic  Mercedes must be a lie or gross extortion of truth.  Because there is no possible way that you can drive a car commonly used in Europe over the ocean, and Ferrying it across doesn't seem very cost effective or practical considering we have so many vehicular options...Until one day, archaeologists uncover a Mercedes-Benz dealership built in 2010 and they determine that Mercedes must have been introduced to the U.S. at this time, but was virtually unknown, and certainly unused, up until this time.

I'm just using the same logic and coming to a similarly silly conclusion.

Anna Savelesky
Anna Savelesky

I respectfully suggest the Bible has been rewritten an number of times and artists very often embellish the stories to their likings.  Probably donkeys and mules were mounts used in those days.  The Romans used mules and the peoples of that area used donkeys because horses were generally too expensive to maintain so the breeding of mules was probably left the the wealthier people.  I remember reading that Jesus rode the "colt of an ass" on his trip to confront the priests of the temple for palm Sunday.  Also another faith from Mecca were users of camels so these would signify beasts of invaders.  I learned what Bedouin life could be like when I read Lawrence's "Seven Pillars of Wisdom". 

Also, we are learning from recent archeological digs that commerce between cultures was more active than we had commonly thought so a camel or two might have drifted that way. 

As an aside, my family had friends and the English gentleman had ridden with Lawrence during WWI.

Joyce Baxter
Joyce Baxter

I agree with Dwayne Piergiovanni. 

and Grace Torgerson 

Sometimes conclusions are colored by an individuals beliefs more than on the actual facts. Either we believe the whole bible as handed down to us or we don't. And some people have their minds made up so don't bother them with the facts. Nevertheless, GOD will have the last word and you may not like it.

Elias Paulus
Elias Paulus

I wonder how a squirrels can be a master of a human being, would you think a master would prefer being inferior to its servants or would you take it right for a master to worship a servant? you can't rule over your dad to cook. review.

Isabella Johnson
Isabella Johnson

i am very disappointed national geographic, this is not in your best interest you know

Jessica Christol
Jessica Christol

haha i knew it !!! the bible is all a lie!!  you guys should all come to my religion, called squirrelism. we worship squirrels. and i've annointed myself squirrel god, so they worship me as i worship them!!! worshipping animals is better than worshipping some "god" that may or may NOT exist. we've been lied to all these years. D:  

Martin Evans
Martin Evans

The use of camels in the time of the patriarchs may well have been, as Dwayne (last post) has stated, principally for purposes other than burden-carrying: those useful features as he mentions, plus probably serving as riding animals. The weight of a rider, and the frequency of being ridden, would be far less onerous on the camel than the regular carrying of heavy loads, the skeletal damage from which appears to have been a chief reason for the use of the term "domesticated" to distinguish only the later beasts.   

Dwayne Piergiovanni
Dwayne Piergiovanni

The book Civilizations of the Ancient Near East states: “Recent research has suggested that the domestication of the camel took place in southeastern Arabia some time in the third millennium [B.C.E.]. Originally, it was probably bred for its milk, hair, leather, and meat, but it cannot have been long before its usefulness as a beast of burden became apparent.” This dating to before Abraham’s time seems to be supported by bone fragments and other archaeological remains.


Written evidence also exists. The same reference work says: “In Mesopotamia, cuneiform lists mention the creature [the camel] and several seals depict it, indicating that the animal may have reached Mesopotamia by the beginning of the second millennium,” that is, by Abraham’s time.


Perhaps camels were not widely used in the ancient Near East at the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E., but evidence seems to confirm that they were not completely unknown. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia therefore concludes: “It is no longer necessary to regard the mention of camels in the patriarchal narratives as anachronisms, since there is ample archeological evidence for the domestication of the camel before the time of the patriarchs.”

WallopinWill Martin
WallopinWill Martin

This article does not give a thorough treatment of the subject. Part of the evidence archaeologists rely on is the fact that camel remains in Israel contain mature camel bones, never infant or adolescent bones, which indicates camels were bred elsewhere and came to Israel in caravans originating elsewhere.

Meredith Heffernan
Meredith Heffernan

The author of Genesis (presumably Moses) would have hard the story of his ancestors many times. Back then, story telling was done very differently, and usually orally. A detail like whether Abraham had camels or not wouldn't have mattered. It was a measure of one's wealth to have lots of livestock. The point was, Abraham stopped at a well at some point, and he had a lot of wealth for the time. 


This type of thinking especially goes for anything in Job or Genesis, which were both collections of their histories told orally. After that, people were keeping more detailed records, though the storytelling fashion would still be very different.


For instance, the difference between John and Luke (much less ancient books of the Bible), in how they tell the story of Jesus is pretty incredible. Luke has the air of a historian, and doesn't spend a lot of time to make you feel any specific way. He simply presents the facts that he was aware of. This is a more modern way of thinking, and as he was trying to appeal to the Greeks, I guess it works. This version was meant to be an analytical presentation.


John, on the other hand, writes his own memories down - does not use references - and appeals to the new Christians of the time. He wants people to get in touch with the Holy Spirit, and was probably less interested in the hard facts, as long as you get the idea of the matter at hand - though of course there's not really any proof for or against his accuracy. From John's perspective, the story of Jesus was something to be felt and understood in your heart and conscience, not something to be analyzed by your mind. There is passion in the way he writes.


Genesis and Job are not supposed to be books about science (none of the Bible is, actually). They are books about a relationship between God and his creation. No one needs specific information about how they played out, as long as we get the message being conveyed. Some details are important to Judaism/Christianity, but I don't think a lack of camels in Abraham's time are enough to rock anyone's faith.

Donald Kamens
Donald Kamens

Before the 10th Century BC, the inhabitants of the land might have transported the bones to Egypt .... or otherwise disposed of them. or their use in the mining and transport of copper may have been discouraged by other factors. The authors make a typical non-scientific conclusion that is completely unfounded and unsubstantiated. All they can say is that their research did not find camel bones of a certain age at these sites, nothing more. The next thing such science fiction might claim is that the Dead Sea Scrolls were composed by a fiction writing class at Qumran. Really now. Stay with the scientific method and don't fantasize.

Mhd Shd
Mhd Shd

930 B.C in Palestine .. Israel did not exist that time 

Kevin Short
Kevin Short

This is really an old discussion.  Genesis does not present the widespread use of camels in the Levant, those who own them have ties outside of the Levant.  (Abraham was from Ur, and there are no references to his owning camels before he visited Egypt.  The traders who bought Joseph likewise had ties to Egypt).  This is still consistent with Genesis; this story is an example of an overstatement of the findings ramifications along with a certain level of sensationalism.

Help Your faith
Help Your faith

Are you kidding me!

All that has been proven is the timeline camels were used in cooper mines??

I love their assumption at the end that they found bones dating back to 9,700 B.C

But they were just wiled animals? Ha Ha

So reading between the lines, Camels were used in a general way from 9,700 B.C

Until they were used for mining.

That’s good that their findings have proven the Bible correct again!

jamie cronin
jamie cronin

The bible has very little to tell us about how to live our lives and in fact if you actually read it is full of murder, rape, genocide, hate and some of the most ludicrous stories of illiterate goat herders witnessing "miracles".

It is not a subject that most folk who exercise their brains even contemplate!

Grow up.

Dov Ber
Dov Ber

Archaeological excavations in the Aravah Valley have turned up bones of camels from earlier periods, perhaps even before the start of the Neolithic (about 9,700 B.C.), but those were probably wild animals that ran free, never burdened with the weight of copper ingots on their back.  


so say the writers == of course they would not carry copper ingots - this is before the copper and bronze periods -- how could they carry copper when it was NOT begin used??? what kind of scholarship is this?????

Dov Ber
Dov Ber

a most stupid article NOT based on known facts. FACT camels (the two humped kind) was known in Sumer 2500 BCE - Abraham came from UR that was from Southern Sumer - 


These camels were used for milk and for travel and for goods. As for copper mines-of course the camels would be later BECAUSE there were no copper mines being mined during Abraham's time right?  


But then again, National Geographic has to make money and even scholars have to publish items that will bring them attention - after all they may now apply for a grant to prove their point. And what better way of getting a grand or making money than by claiming that the Bible is false (there are still people who do not believe that King David existed in a place called Jerusalem)

Julien Sebag
Julien Sebag

That is a great example of why I love science. Another blow to the myth. I am curious to find out what excuses are going to be used to explain this. unless it will be the usual, "since the bible says so, the scientists must have this wrong"

Lou Baer
Lou Baer

The issue here is the accuracy of Radiocarbon dating. It was understood that Radiocarbon dating depended on the atmospheric 14 C/12 C ratio having remained the same over the preceding few thousand years. In effect, it became necessary to construct calibration curves designed to correct the errors caused by the variation over time in the 14 C/12 C ratio. There are three main reasons for these variations in the historical 14 C12 C ratio: Namely, fluctuations in the rate at which C is created; changes caused by glaciation; and changes caused by human activity. In summary, Radiocarbon dating needs to account for Atmospheric variation, Variations in 14 C production, Impact of climatic cycles, effects of human activity, fractionation, reservoir effects, marine effect, hard water effect, volcanoes, hemisphere effect, Island effect, contamination, not to mention laboratory systematic errors. The need to correct a normal distribution or 68% confidence (32% error) that the Radiocarbon dating value is within the given range is clearly documented.  Looking at all the literature on the errors, reliability, and laboratory systematic errors in the Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin (http://www.shroud.com/nature.htm) is a case in point. In conclusion, the archaeologists here have proven nothing. Radiocarbon dating has shown itself to be systemically in error and unreliable.

Janvier Afrika
Janvier Afrika

the study would go further to investigate if there were not geo-climatic conditions which would have resulting in suppressing all the remains of camels reported in the bible. The fact is that the study found out a recent domestication. It would be obvious if it was reveled the opposite: earlier domestication that the bible says. 

Janvier Afrika
Janvier Afrika

The study would go further to investigate if there were not geo-climatic conditions which would have resulting in suppressing all the remains of camels reported in the bible. The fact is that the study found out a recent domestication. It would be obvious if it was reveled the opposite: earlier domestication that the bible says. 

Amber Gardner
Amber Gardner

WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/TICTOCMINISTRIES


Monica Dennington

Wolfgang Peters
Wolfgang Peters

Just another reason to believe that the stories of the bible where placed wrong all time. ancient Israel was where the Yemen is now, that is well known to those who want to know. (few do, it does not fit in), but all can read Kamal Salibi "The bible came from Arabia". And since there are no camels depicted in any Egyptian tomb it is clear since a long time, that there where no camels around in the near east. Thought you brought something new, did you?

Gila Wittow
Gila Wittow

I think you have to be very careful about definitely saying this is true.  It is all too easy to make unwarranted assumptions due to incomplete evidence (cf Kenyon saying the walls of Jericho came tumbling down later than the time of Joshua, thanks to an absence of a particular type of pot which should have been found - when in fact she excavated only a small area in a very poor part of the city;  this type of pot was later found in abundance in other areas excavated at the same levels in a richer part of the city where the inhabitants could actually afford to buy it, thereby providing evidence that she was wrong in her date estimation) . There is no hard evidence to show that camels were not domesticated before this date, at least for travel purposes.  I believe this particular suggestion has been made already - and refuted due to written evidence found on cuniform tablets detailing the buying and selling of camels long before 1000 BCE.

Grace Torgerson
Grace Torgerson

@Jessica Christol please listen.The bible is not a lie!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! It is true! The only reason that people don't believe in god is because they want to control their own life and make their own decisions and not let god lead them on the right path. The bible has been proven true every time! The christian religion is the only religion that is being persecuted, why do you think that is? Because the devil knows that christians worship the true God! and the only God! The devil tries to make you believe that the bible isn't true because he knows it is! All other religions make people scared of their "god" because they will get punished, but our God is all about love, he sent his only son to die on a cross for the people that killed him, he gave us free will to decide if we want to follow him, he doesn't threaten us to follow him, and our reward is living in heaven with him forever! all you have to do is ask him to come into your heart, thats it! Where does squirrelism get you in life? nowhere! If you don't believe in the one true God then you will spend forever after you die in hell, isn't that scary? i think it's better to follow God now instead of doing bad things for just your life rather than be sorry when you meet God when you die and he will say "I am sorry you chose this path" and he will send you to hell, for eternity! then you will realize that you were wrong and you will have to spend forever in hell, there is no turning back. i hope this helped you realize that God is real and so is the bible.

Elias Paulus
Elias Paulus

consider, despite the bible, both of you are animals, with flesh and breath wonderfully created, who do you think have created the other, would you think a master will prefer worshiping a servant? would you think the squirrels will keep the breath in you? review your religion.

Grace Torgerson
Grace Torgerson

@Meredith Heffernan I really like your answer to this. I don't get why national geographic would post something like this, for one they only searched in one place, and for two they don't know that those were the first ever domesticated camels in the world they could have just died the year that they dated it. They haven't even looked for more they just automatically assume that they proved the bible wrong, 'cause that's impossible!!! No one will ever be able to prove the bible wrong, ever! Because it's true!

Chey Rayner
Chey Rayner

@Meredith Heffernan  

It's nice to see someone who knows how to read and analyze. I bet you listen too.  :)

40 days and 40 nights did not mean literally 40 x 24 hours, it just meant a very long time.

Kind of like a s dog night as a temperature gauge.

Eric Moore
Eric Moore

@Deborah SamsonFrom the site you linked: "These camel petroglyphs are much more recent than the Neolithic petroglyphs found on the west side of the valley at Shuwaymis." The camel drawings are not Neolithic in origin.

Grace Torgerson
Grace Torgerson

@Minna Bellasplease listen.The bible is not a lie!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! It is true! The only reason that people don't believe in god is because they want to control their own life and make their own decisions and not let god lead them on the right path. The bible has been proven true every time! The christian religion is the only religion that is being persecuted, why do you think that is? Because the devil knows that christians worship the true God! and the only God! The devil tries to make you believe that the bible isn't true because he knows it is! All other religions make people scared of their "god" because they will get punished, but our God is all about love, he sent his only son to die on a cross for the people that killed him, he gave us free will to decide if we want to follow him, he doesn't threaten us to follow him, and our reward is living in heaven with him forever! all you have to do is ask him to come into your heart, thats it! nowhere! If you don't believe in the one true God then you will spend forever after you die in hell, isn't that scary? i think it's better to follow God now instead of doing bad things for just your life rather than be sorry when you meet God when you die and he will say "I am sorry you chose this path" and he will send you to hell, for eternity! then you will realize that you were wrong and you will have to spend forever in hell, there is no turning back. i hope this helped you realize that God is real and so is the bible.

Meredith Heffernan
Meredith Heffernan

@jamie cronin  Of course its full of that. Because that's the human condition. There are a lot of people who hate, murder, rape, and commit genocide. The purpose of the Bible is to illustrate that we all suck, and that the world is a sucky place to be. And then it follows up with getting you to realize that without God you're nothing. That is the entire purpose of the Bible. Why does anyone follow it? Well its sort of hard to explain, and I don't think you'd listen if you heard anyone talking about it.


But honestly, if the Bible was all feel-good PG material, where would the honesty be? Where would the story be? Its simple enough for a child to get the basics, but complicated enough for people to still debate about it. That's a fantastic story. We have enough commercials for feel-good s***. "Life IS pain, Highness. Anyone who says differently is selling something."

Grace Torgerson
Grace Torgerson

@Julien Sebag please listen.The bible is not a lie!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! It is true! The only reason that people don't believe in god is because they want to control their own life and make their own decisions and not let god lead them on the right path. The bible has been proven true every time! The christian religion is the only religion that is being persecuted, why do you think that is? Because the devil knows that christians worship the true God! and the only God! The devil tries to make you believe that the bible isn't true because he knows it is! All other religions make people scared of their "god" because they will get punished, but our God is all about love, he sent his only son to die on a cross for the people that killed him, he gave us free will to decide if we want to follow him, he doesn't threaten us to follow him, and our reward is living in heaven with him forever! all you have to do is ask him to come into your heart, thats it! nowhere! If you don't believe in the one true God then you will spend forever after you die in hell, isn't that scary? i think it's better to follow God now instead of doing bad things for just your life rather than be sorry when you meet God when you die and he will say "I am sorry you chose this path" and he will send you to hell, for eternity! then you will realize that you were wrong and you will have to spend forever in hell, there is no turning back. i hope this helped you realize that God is real and so is the bible.

Grace Torgerson
Grace Torgerson

@Wolfgang Petersplease listen.The bible is not a lie!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! It is true! The only reason that people don't believe in god is because they want to control their own life and make their own decisions and not let god lead them on the right path. The bible has been proven true every time! The christian religion is the only religion that is being persecuted, why do you think that is? Because the devil knows that christians worship the true God! and the only God! The devil tries to make you believe that the bible isn't true because he knows it is! All other religions make people scared of their "god" because they will get punished, but our God is all about love, he sent his only son to die on a cross for the people that killed him, he gave us free will to decide if we want to follow him, he doesn't threaten us to follow him, and our reward is living in heaven with him forever! all you have to do is ask him to come into your heart, thats it! nowhere! If you don't believe in the one true God then you will spend forever after you die in hell, isn't that scary? i think it's better to follow God now instead of doing bad things for just your life rather than be sorry when you meet God when you die and he will say "I am sorry you chose this path" and he will send you to hell, for eternity! then you will realize that you were wrong and you will have to spend forever in hell, there is no turning back. i hope this helped you realize that God is real and so is the bible.

Gila Wittow
Gila Wittow

@Wolfgang Peters  Don't know where you heard that one, but frankly as someone who lives in Israel, the opinion that Yemen = ancient Israel is utterly ridiculous.  There is a great deal of archaeological evidence for the Jewish Temples and ancient Jewish life in Israel;  Jews have always prayed towards the Temple Mount in Jerusalem (cf Muslims pray towards Mecca and have done so since the time of Mohammed, although at the very first, early Muslims did actually pray towards Jerusalem) and have ALWAYS been attached to their homeland, despite being scattered around the globe);  there are many commandments in the Bible that can ONLY be fulfilled in the land of Israel eg shmita - we are just coming up to another shmita year starting this September - and various ancient Biblical prophecies coming true, such as the Jewish people returning to their land (although a remnant, despite great suffering, did actually manage to remain in Israel throughout the Jewish diaspora) and making it flourish once more (it was very barren and poorly populated for  many hundreds of years before the 20th century).

Richard Boyle
Richard Boyle

@Grace Torgerson @Jessica Christol 

I'm afraid your comments here show a rather serious lack of awareness and insensitivity to many other religions.

If you read most newspapers or UN reports about religion you will see that Christianity is far from the only religion being persecuted. Let me see, Sunni Moslems persecute Shia and vice-versa. Both persecute Ahmaddiya Moslems, Jews have been persecuted throughout the centuries and continue to be so today, Baha'is are persecuted in many countries. Buddhists in some countries, Hindus in another, Zoroastrians also.  Also, don't forget the persecution perpetrated against so many native peoples, such as the First Nations in North America, the Incas and Aztecs of Central and South America. And of course the litany of centuries of persecution by those who call themselves Christian  would make anyone stop and wonder ate the incongruity of a religion that claims to be so gentle and loving and yet can be so intolerant and filled with hatred and cruelty.So if  by your reasoning Satan only persecutes the true religion, then I thank you for showing me and all those with open minds that all religions are true. And that is a service for which you are to be truly thanked.

Be well.

Richard Boyle
Richard Boyle

@Grace Torgerson @Minna Bellas 

Grace,

I'm sorry to tell you that Christianity is NOT The only religion that is being persecuted. In fact all religions have been or are being persecuted, whether by their own co-religionists (as in the case of Catholics vs Protestants within Christianity, or Sunni vs Shia in Islam), Jews today (and for centuries past) have been persecuted (remember the Holocaust? Still happens in more subtle ways) or the 20,000 Baha'is murdered in Iran and who are still being executed, murdered and imprisoned as well as denied education and employment and basic human rights. Then we have Buddhists and Hindus who are also persecuted in various countries, and all religions except state sanctioned versions in countries like China. We also have the persecution of native peoples such as the First Nations in North America, shipped off to residential schools and forced to take Christian names and punished for any semblance of their own culture, whilst being physically and sexually abused. And that (and a whole litany of other examples throughout history) was perpetrated by Christians. If you look you'll see ALL religions have been persecuted at some time or other, so by your reasoning the Devil must know that they are all real. I thank you for providing this wonderful proof of the truth of ALL religions and the oneness of God. You are to be commended for bringing this to the attention of all who read your post. Thank you

Be well

Cody Gray
Cody Gray

Moses directs the killing of 3,000 non believers in exodus. How many examples do you need beyond this one?

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