National Geographic News
An F4 category tornado travels across a field at great speed.

Scientists can't say yet whether global warming will increase tornadoes.

Photograph by Carsten Peter, National Geographic

Robert Kunzig

National Geographic

Published May 22, 2013

It sounds intuitive: Of course global warming should lead to more—and more powerful—tornadoes.

We're adding energy to the atmosphere by trapping heat with greenhouse gases, and tornadoes are the very picture of terrifying atmospheric energy.

Linking any particular weather event to climate change is always tricky, because weather is inherently random. But weather patterns can speak to a warming planet. Scientists can detect that extreme rain events, for instance, are already happening more often than they used to, and that a warmer atmosphere with more water vapor in it is making such events more likely.

Tornadoes are different. Global warming may well end up making them more frequent or intense, as our intuition would tell us. But it might also actually suppress them—the science just isn't clear yet.

Neither is the historical record.

There is no real evidence that tornadoes are happening more often. A lot more are being recorded now than in 1950, but a closer look at the data shows the increase is only in the weakest category, EF0. There's been no increase in stronger twisters, and maybe even a slight decrease in EF4s and EF5s.

That suggests we're just spotting more of the weak and short-lived tornadoes than we did back when the country was emptier (the U.S. population in 1950 was less than half what it is now), we didn't have Doppler radar, and Oklahoma highways weren't jammed with storm-chasers.

There is also no evidence that tornadoes have gotten more damaging, according to a study by Roger Pielke, Jr., of the University of Colorado and his colleagues. Even so, when you allow for inflation and increases in population and wealth in the United States, 2011 becomes the third worst year for tornado damage, after 1953 and 1965.

When National Geographic magazine asked "What's Up With the Weather" in a cover story last September, we put a tornado photo on the cover and six pages of twister pictures inside—including a large shot of the swath of destruction that an EF4 tornado cut through Tuscaloosa, Alabama, in 2011, killing 64 people there and in Birmingham.

But as writer Peter Miller made clear in that story, intuition is not a reliable guide to tornadoes.

Two Opposing Forces

Since we're changing the climate, the historical record is no more certain a guide to the future than intuition is. So what does physics tell us about the future of tornadoes in a CO2-warmed world?

"It really comes down to two ingredients in the atmosphere, in the environment in which storms form," says Jeff Trapp, an atmospheric scientist at Purdue University.

Trapp has been on the road in Kansas and Oklahoma since last week, launching weather balloons into supercells—large, tornado-producing thunderstorms—as part of an effort to improve forecasting. He was 20 or 30 miles away from Moore when the tornado hit on Monday.

The first ingredient needed to make a tornado, he explains, is energy in the form of warm, moist, unstable air. In Oklahoma, that comes on southerly winds off the Gulf of Mexico.

The second ingredient is wind shear—a measure of how much the wind changes speed and direction between the ground and higher levels of the atmosphere. "Essentially that's determined by the strength of the jet stream," which blows in from the west, says Trapp. Wind shear causes the warm, rising air inside a supercell to start rotating, a necessary condition for organizing the storm and allowing it to spawn funnel clouds.

And that gets at the nub of the question surrounding a potential nexus between warming and tornadoes: Although climate change is increasing the energy in the atmosphere, it's also expected to reduce wind shear.

That's because the jet stream is powered ultimately by the temperature difference between Earth's hot tropics and its cold poles, and that difference is decreasing with climate change, as the poles warm faster than the rest of the planet. So the same phenomenon that is rapidly melting the Arctic ice cap and marooning polar bears could lead to a weaker jet stream and fewer tornadoes.

But will it?

Severe thunderstorms can happen even when wind shear is lower, says Trapp. "Really it's the product of the two ingredients that matters most," he says.

The big question, which he and a small number of other climate scientists have been trying to answer with climate simulations, is what will happen to the product of energy times wind shear—to the two ingredients combined—as CO2 continues to warm the world.

"What we find in the models," Trapp says, "is there's actually an increase in the product. The decrease in wind shear is more than compensated [for] by the increase in energy. This tells us that the number of days that support severe thunderstorms generically should increase."

Still, that's just one study. And it says that the future environment should favor the storms that create tornadoes—but not necessarily tornadoes themselves. It's possible that in the future, severe thunderstorms will tend to spend themselves in violent hail or in straight-line winds. Neither is a pleasant prospect, but neither packs the damage potential of tornadoes.

Trapp is now at work on a study that will combine a global climate model with a local, high-resolution model, which will show tornadoes as if on a virtual radar screen.

This new study may offer a glimpse of what the future has in store for Oklahoma and other parts of Tornado Alley. Meanwhile, he can say one thing with certainty: "The last several days in Oklahoma, both the wind shear and the energy have been incredibly large."

Bee Evans
Bee Evans

"The U.S. uses 46% of the total worldwide use of gasoline. The US consumes 400 million gallons of gasoline per day. That translates to about 869 million gallons consumed worlwide per day."

Try burning a barrel of oil in YOUR backyard, & see if it doesn't change your "local climate."

Keith Cameron
Keith Cameron

Since childhood I was a lifelong devotee of National Geographic magazine. Each year on my Birthday my parents would gift me with a renewed subscription. It was always a welcomed and hoped for gift.

That all changed when Nat Geo became political. It's been years since I even glanced at a copy. Tripe like this ensures that it will be even longer.

James Rosenthal
James Rosenthal

It gets cold in the winter, hot in the summer, tornados show up in the spring, hurricanes in the fall. Happens every year. Suddenly, there must be some man-made reason for it. I call BS.

Paul M.
Paul M.

And of course the NGeo wants this misery to be real and has been scaring our kids far too long now, mostly because the kids are laughing now at climate blame.

Science has never said in 28 years and to this day still refuses to say that their climate crisis from Human CO2 is as certain and as real and as eventual as inevitable as they themselves like to say comet hits are.
So there you have it folks; Science believes a climate crisis is not as real as they can say a comet hit is.
Get up to date: *Occupywallstreet now does not even mention CO2 in its list of demands because of the bank-funded and corporate run carbon trading stock markets ruled by politicians.

Bob Burnitt
Bob Burnitt

They can call it whatever they want, the WEATHER where *I* lived has changed.  I believe it is permanent.  Texas weather has always been "changeable" but I am 61 years old and I have never seen, even in drought years of the past, where it did NOT rain in the Spring in North Texas until the last several years, and I have never seen these EXTREMES we have now.  Extremely Cold one day followed by extremely NOT the next.  It has ruined my garden and "hay crop" for the last several year in a row.  We do NOT have the typical Cold weather in January and February we used to have, but we have these extremes in April and May every year now, followed by HORRIBLE SUMMERS of Gawd awful AIR POLLUTION and no rain.  the problem is TOO MANY PEOPLE.  Since 1980 the population has gone from 8 million in the state to 30 million it has RUINED the STATE.  All I can think about is HOW to get out of this awful place.  I believe the "Wind Storms" are much worse now.  IN the Panhandle as soon as they pump the Aquifer DRY, we will have the AMERICAN SAHARA.  Bob Burnitt

Ciara Blaze
Ciara Blaze

@Keith Cameron I don't see what's so "political" about this article. unless you're a global warming/climate change denier.

Chris Crawford
Chris Crawford

@Keith Cameron You write: "It's been years since I even glanced at a copy."

I can't help but ask, so what are you doing reading this article? Moreover, this article is about science. Didn't you learn the difference between politics and science in school?

Shane C.
Shane C.

@James Rosenthal Hi James I do agree with you but the storms seem to be coming more frequent and on average producing or creating more damage

Xira Arien
Xira Arien

@James Rosenthal The climate changes too slowly for humans to really notice day-to-day.

That does not mean it is not changing.

This is a good article. Global warming is happening, and may help or hurt Tornado alley.

Chris Crawford
Chris Crawford

@Paul M. Oh noes! Paul Merrifield, aka Mememine aka, mememine69, aka Al Bore, aka David Nutzuki, aka Former Believer, makes his appearance here under a NEW alias. He flits around the Internet posting the same basic message anywhere than anybody says anything using the phrase "global warming". Some people have suggested that he must be a spam-robot, but I've seen enough slight variation in his postings to dismiss that. No, this is the same fellow, he's a person, and he is indefatigable.

Of course, he's also completely wrong, but that hasn't slowed him down.

Brett Kelley
Brett Kelley

@Doug L @Paul M. Wow!  You mean the average global temperature has increased approx. 1 degree fahrenheit over the last several that is scary!  And please, if you might, name one single flipping time in mankinds' history when global warming was a bad religious nuts crack me up...and if it is us, name one single CONTROLLABLE variable you'd recommend as a solution to "our" problem...................and, you can't!   Cheep Cheep Chicken Little


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