A fighter pauses outside a gate in old city Aleppo, where clashes erupted in August.
Photograph by Bulent Kilic, AFP/Getty Images
Aleppo's medieval citadel, a UNESCO World Heritage site, was damaged in August by shells when fighting escalated near the old city. Inside the fortress entrance a massive iron door—installed by the Mamelukes in the 16th century—was destroyed.
Photograph by Patrick Kovarik, AFP/Getty Images
Both government troops and rebels have occupied citadels like Qala'at al-Hosn, known to the world as Krak des Chevaliers. Ancient buildings are now enmeshed in a modern war, attracting enemy fire.
Photograph by Djilali Belaid, AFP/Getty Images
Crusaders built Krak des Chevaliers and famously held off the armies of Arab conqueror Saladin. Today, the 12th-century castle, one of the best preserved in the world, is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Photograph by Christopher Herwig, Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images
Mark Antony and Cleopatra once visited the column-lined streets of the Roman city Apamea, now located near the modern Syrian city of Hama. This year in separate incidents the ruins of Apamea were shelled and looted, with mosaics and column capitals reportedly stolen.