For Lesage

Carlos Borgea

SummaryThis argumentation aim is to show that despite light speed does not depend on the light source speed, it depends on the adopted referential system, and that gravitation is due to the waves and particles that fill up the space, this is the Lesage theory of gravitation. If you think that two photons that travel side by side at the same light bean have speed of magnitude c in relation to each other then we can not agree with you.

Key words: Relativity theory, Lesage theory of gravitation, Michelson-Morley experiment, Morley-Miller experiment, the Newtonian constant, gravimeter.

**Contents**

1.Discussion about light speed ...………………………………………………...1

2.Discussion about gravitation …………………………………………………..1

3.Conclusions…………………………………………………………………….2

**1. Discussion about light speed**

Let us consider three cylindrical, horizontal, and rectilinear light beans A, B, and D travelling at the laboratory at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, where Michelson and Morley, and Morley and Miller have made their experiments1 (1880-1930).

Let us suppose that A and B are parallels to each other, and travel in opposite directions, and that D is perpendicular to A and B.

Let us suppose yet that A, B, and D travel with speed of magnitude c in relation to a Cartesian coordinate system attached to the laboratory.

( c = 3.0 x 108 m/s). This is what Michelson and Morley have found. Morley and Miller have found a difference of 10 km/s between A and D speeds.

Let us consider yet four photons a1 and a2 that travel side by side at the bean A, b and d pertaining to the beans B and D respectively.

According to good reason a1 and a2 have null or almost null speeds in relation to each other, a1 and b have speed of magnitude 2c in relation to each other, and at last photons b and d travel with speed of magnitude 1.41 c in relation to each other, and it does not matter if Michelson-Morley or Miller-Morley were right.

When postulate that light speed does not depend on the adopted system of reference2, Special Theory of Relativity affirm that these three referred speeds have magnitude c. This is out of good reason.

To quote Einstein2: ** “…the
concept empty space loses its meaning.”** (Note to the fifteenth edition,
June 9th, 1952.)

There is a sea of stars producing waves and particles around us. There are other sources of waves and particles in the Universe.

Near the Earth surface there are more waves and particles downwards than upwards.

Why?

Because the upwards waves and particles have crossed our Earth and part of them were absorbed by the planet.

And in addition?

These waves and particles cross matter, interact with atoms, and push more downwards than upwards!

Then bodies fall.

Then molecules of solids are vibrating all the time.

If you use a gravimeter below a source mass to measure the Newtonian constant G, you are in fact measuring the magnitude of downwards waves and particles. Then you will find a value greater than the recommended codata value G = 6.67 x 10-11 (SI).

Varga *et
al3*found 65 mGal instead of 56 mGal, 16% greater than forecast.

On the other hand, if you use the gravimeter above the source mass to measure G, you are measuring the magnitude of the upwards waves and particles. In this case you will find a value smaller than the codata value.

Varga *et
al3*found 49 mGal instead of 56 mGal.

For more information look for Island effect theory of gravitation4.

**3.Conclusions**

Despite light speed does not depend on the speed of its source, it depends on the adopted system of reference like to any other wave. According to this Special and General Theories of Relativity are wrong theories and have to be abandoned by scientific community. For more information, please look for: Lesage theory of gravitation4.

a Paulista University

R. Dr. Luiz Migliano, 761, bloco C, Apto. 54, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 05711-001.

3 P. Varga, A. Hajósy and G. Cisapó, Geophys. J. Int. 120, pp. 745-757 (Fig.8), (1995).

4 Carlos Borge, ‘Island effect theory of
gravitation – Lesage-Brush’s theory’, *PUBLICAÇÃO IF *1616/2005.

o link to this article: http://repositorio.if.usp.br/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1396/45/pd1616.pdf?sequence=1

1 Roberto Lalli, ‘The Reception of Miller’s
Ether Drift Experiments in the USA; The History of a Controversy in Relativity
Revolution’, *Annals of Science*, Vol. 69, No. 2, April 2012, 153-214.

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00033790.2011.637473

2 Albert Einstein, *Relativity The Special and
The General Theory – A clear explanation that anyone can understand, *Cap.
VI & VII, (New York 1961). Alternative document: David Halliday, Robert
Resnick, and Jearl Walker, *Fundamentals of Physics (Fourth Edition)Extended*,
chapter 42-3, (New York 1993).