One of the least explored places on Earth, Mount Bosavi (pictured) in central Papua New Guinea is "a little world onto itself," said biologist and National Geographic emerging explorer Kristofer Helgen. (See a Papua New Guinea map.)
Though most of the local people live in warmer lowland forests, logging operations are getting closer to the isolated mountain, he added.
Local, national, and global organizations would have to work together to keep the volcano ecosystem pristine, he said.
"Finding what lives on Mount Bosavi and realizing its uniqueness is really a first step."