51 Headless Vikings Found in English Execution Pit?

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Even if their weapons and valuables had been taken "we should have found bone buttons and things like that, but to date we've got absolutely nothing," Score said.

"They look like a healthy, robust, very strong, very masculine group of young males," he added. "It's your classic sort of warrior."

The burial has been radiocarbon-dated to between A.D. 890 and 1034.

During this time England was split between Anglo-Saxons, in the south and west, and Danish settlers, in the north and east.

The Anglo-Saxons were Germanic peoples who colonized England beginning in the 400s; founded the country on the island of Great Britain; and gave rise to the English language. Around the time of the mass burial, the Celts were still largely in control of the non-English regions of Great Britain: Scotland and Wales.

"You've got Danish and Saxon armies fighting backwards and forwards across England," Score said.

The early English also faced the threat of longship-sailing Vikings, Scandinavian seafarers who pillaged coastal regions (northern Europe map).

"It's not just the odd ship" attacking, Score said. For example, "there's a documented account of 94 longships attacking London at one point, and then they work their way down the coast."

CSI: Weymouth

The team hopes chemical analysis of the buried men's teeth will show whether they grew up in Britain or Scandinavia. (Related: "Vikings Filed Their Teeth, Skeleton Study Shows.")

Signs of muscle attachment on the bones could also help reveal whether the executed were Viking oarsmen, since "strong physical exertion in a particular direction does affect the bones," Score said.

"It might be possible to say they are overdeveloped in their upper body and arm strength ... people who are doing a lot of heavy rowing."

Anglo-Saxon Slayers, Viking Victims

The burial's prominent location on a hilltop by the ancient main road to Weymouth, which was already in existence, hints that a local group carried out the killings, Score said.

"Locations like this are classic sites for executions in late Saxon and medieval times," he added.

Vikings, he said, had a different M.O.

"If you're a Viking raider, you're much more likely to leave people where you killed them in the town or on the beach," he said.

Kim Siddorn, author of Viking Weapons and Warfare, suspects the executed men were indeed Vikings.

"I would say this was a Viking raiding party which had been trapped," he said.

"They had left their ship, walked inland, ran into an unusually well-organized body of Saxons, and were probably forced to surrender."

There was little to differentiate Vikings and early English warriors on the battlefield, said Siddorn, founder of Regia Anglorum, a historical-reenactment society.

"You would find it very difficult to tell the difference between a Viking and a Saxon if they stood in front of you in war gear," he said

Both used spears as their primary weapons, with swords and axes as backups, Siddorn added.

But Vikings had surprise and, in some cases, numbers on their side.

"Whilst the Vikings were no better than the Saxons at fighting, they did come by the shipload," he said.

"During the height of the Viking raids, it's reasonable to say it was unsafe to live anywhere within 20 miles [32 kilometers] of the coast."

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