for National Geographic News
Sea hares, a type of sea slug with tentacles that resemble rabbit ears, have developed a crafty concoction of bodily fluids that deters predatory spiny lobsters, a new study says.
When threatened, the marine invertebrates produce two chemical secretions, ink and a milky mix of substances called opaline. The chemicals are mixed together moments before the animals squirt out a dark cloud.
A reaction between ink and opaline also makes a byproduct of hydrogen peroxide, commonly used by humans as an antiseptic.
At first glance, the combined secretions appear to create a cover by which the soft slugs can escape lobsters.
But the new study shows that the chemical blast causes lobsters to display anxious behaviors, as well as prevents them from eating the sea hares.
"We knew these secretions were incredibly complex and used for defensive purposes, but we didn't know what role the individual secretions were playing or what specifically they were doing," said study lead author Juan Aggio of Georgia State University in Atlanta.
Aggio and co-author Charles Derby, also at Georgia State University, placed lobsters in aquariums and exposed them to small doses of shrimp juice to whet their appetites.
The scientists exposed the lobsters to one of three chemical compounds: ink, opaline, or hydrogen peroxide.
Ink on its own had little effect on lobster behavior. But opaline and hydrogen peroxide caused lobsters to rub their mouthparts and flip their tails—actions associated with anxiety and escaping danger.
Next the team gave lobsters shrimp laced with one of the three compounds. The crustaceans took considerably longer to eat shrimp containing ink and hydrogen peroxide than they did normal shrimp.
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