This theory has been supported by genetic studies that suggest the two crayfish groups diverged around the same time that Pangaea split into northern and southern "supercontinents" about 185 million years ago.
(See a map of Earth's moving plates.)
Ancestors of today's crayfish would then have ridden the slowly drifting landmasses north and south, eventually branching into numerous species as the continents continued to divide.
However, to show conclusively that the ancestors of northern and southern crayfish once lived on a united Pangaea, even older fossils will be needed.
Carrie Schweitzer is a geologist at Kent State University in Ohio.
She said the alternative explanation—that freshwater crayfish evolved independently in the northern and southern continents—cannot yet be discarded.
For drifting supercontinents to explain the origin of the different families, she said, "crayfish would have had to have invaded freshwater [habitats] really early and become widespread by the time Pangaea started to split. So far, we really don't have evidence of that."
Early in Australia
The new fossils also provide clues about the origin of the numerous crayfish species found in Australia today.
The fossil dates are consistent with results of recent genetic studies, which suggest that many new crayfish species began to appear in what is now Australia about 134 million years ago.
At that time the continents of Australia, South America, and Antarctica were just starting to break off from the southern supercontinent of Gondwana.
(See related photo: "'Polar Predator' Dino Tracks Found" [October 23, 2007].)
Just as the breakup of Pangaea may have forever divided the two main crayfish lineages, Martin believes, the later splitting of Gondwana may have resulted in a surge in crayfish diversity.
The early crayfish apparently thrived in a near-polar environment in southeastern Australia, and must have been adapted to cold water temperatures and freezing winters just like some modern crayfish species.
"These crayfish were burrowing much like modern ones in the same area today, showing that their behaviors haven't changed that much in more than 100 million years," Martin said.
Free Email News Updates
Sign up for our Inside National Geographic newsletter. Every two weeks we'll send you our top stories and pictures (see sample).
SOURCES AND RELATED WEB SITES