Others note the Bali project is mostly dependent on traditionally generated electricity, a method that itself contributes to global warming. Goreau himself concedes it has yet to attract significant financial backing.
Nonetheless, scientists agree that coral reefs are an especially valuable—and sensitive—global environmental asset. They provide shorelines with protection from tides and waves, and host a stunning diversity of plant and sea life.
How It Works
It has long been known that coral that breaks off the reef can be salvaged and restored if it can somehow be reattached.
Goreau's Bali project constructs metal frames, often in the shape of domes or greenhouses, and submerges them in the bay. When hooked up to a low-voltage energy source on the shore, limestone—a building block of reefs—naturally gathers on the metal. Workers then salvage coral that has broken from damaged reefs and affix the pieces of live coral to the structure.
Goreau and his supporters say the electricity spurs the weakened coral to restore itself.
"When they get the juice, they are not as stressed," said Rani Morrow-Wuigk, an Australian-German who rents bungalows on the beach and has supported efforts to save the reefs for years.
Indeed the corals on the structures appear vibrant, and supporters say they have rebounded with impressive vigor. The coral in Pemuteran teems with clownfish, damselfish, and other colorful tropical animals.
(Related story: Damselfish Study May Help Improve Marine Reserves [October 13, 2004])
Money and Maintenance
Funding, however, is a major problem. There are some 40 metal structures growing coral in Pemuteran Bay and about 100 cables laid to feed them with electricity, but only about a third of the wires are working because of maintenance problems and the cost of running them, said Morrow-Wuigk.
The electrification program is part of a wider effort in the bay to save the coral.
Chris Brown, an Australian diving instructor who has lived in Bali for 17 years, said he and other people determined to save the reefs have long struggled to drive away fishermen who use dynamite and other coral-destroying methods to maintain their livelihoods.
He said a key has been demonstrating to shoreline communities the benefits of coral reef maintenance, such as growing fish stocks and more jobs catering to tourists who come to dive in the area.
Brown has participated in Goreau's projects and won funding from the Australian government to set up a Bio-Rock structure electrified by solar panels fixed on a floating offshore platform.
Brown has also used seed money from Australia's capital Canberra to establish the Reef Gardeners of Pemuteran, an organization that trains islanders to dive, maintain the solar-paneled coral structure, and clean the reefs of harmful animals.
Kadek Darma, 25, a Balinese who has worked with Brown for two years, said the advantages of the corals to the local economy were obvious.
"They attract the tourists, and more tourists means more jobs," he said. "I hope we can all keep maintaining the reefs for our great-great grandchildren."
Copyright 2007 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
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