"Light from far away tends to be deflected more and so lies further from the center of the lens."
Using a massive cluster of nearby galaxies as their lens, the scientists were able to spot six star-forming galaxies that appear to be 13 billion light-years away.
That means light from stars in those galaxies was first emitted about 13 billion years ago.
"This corresponds to a time when the universe was only 500 million years old, or less than 4 percent of its present age," Ellis said.
Proving that these galaxies really are as far away—and thus as old—as they appear is difficult.
But in addition to thorough checks of their work, Ellis and colleagues say they have supporting evidence.
One clue is that slightly closer and younger galaxies detected by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope contain surprisingly old stars.
(See morphing images of stellar nurseries taken by Spitzer.)
"To produce these old stars requires significant earlier activity, most likely in the fainter star-forming galaxies we have now seen," said Dan Stark, a graduate student at Caltech who helped Ellis gather and analyze the latest observations.
The new discovery may help astronomers understand how the universe pulled itself out of its initial period of darkness, which started about 300,000 years after its birth and lasted for about 500 million years.
During this time—often called the dark ages—there were no stars, only hydrogen clouds that didn't shine.
"At some point those hydrogen clouds collapsed, and in their cores nuclear reactions would ignite to form stars," research presenter Ellis said.
One of the biggest challenges now is to pinpoint this "cosmic dawn," when the first stars began to shine. But Ellis and his team believe they are close.
"We think we may be detecting traces of a 'magic moment,'" Ellis said, "where the sky was ablaze with these young systems."
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