For example, critics said that sociobiology would help some people justify aggressive behavior and would provide legitimacy to racism and sexism.
Wilson says he was misunderstood. His theory applies only to understanding how and why societies have evolved, not the way they should be structured, he says.
The author is now collaborating with his former colleague Bert Holldobler on a new sociobiology book to be called The Superorganism.
"We reexamine the whole concept of societies, especially insect societies and higher levels of biological organization, as seen from a modern perspective," Wilson said.
Despite his strong interest in conservation, Wilson has troubled some environmentalists by championing the use of genetically modified organisms, primarily as a tool to end hunger.
"I jumped right into that controversy [and] at the end I saw the risks [of genetic modification] were manageable, maybe not as threatening as many people feared. The benefits for conservation and humanity far outweighed the risks."
Wilson's latest foray into scientific debate involves the battle over evolution.
His edited collection of Darwin's four most influential books, a compendium titled From So Simple a Beginning, recently hit store shelves.
"There is no question [Darwin's] body of work, pivoted by Origin of the Species, is the most important scientific work of all time," Wilson said.
"First and foremost, it turned out to be correct. Second, it changed everything. It changed our image of ourselves as a species."
In public presentations of From So Simple a Beginning, Wilson voices his concern about the popularity of intelligent design.
"The intelligent design argument consists of a default argument, that because biologists haven't explained all complex systems" they can be explained only by the existence of a godlike creator.
Nature: The Common Ground?
Wilson released two more books this spring and a third book, The Creation, is due out in September.
"[This upcoming book] is a call for an alliance between science and religion to save 'the creation'biodiversitywhich is going down the tubes rapidly," he said.
"The preservation of biodiversity is essential for the stable existence of the Earth and our species," he said.
Love of nature and a sense of responsibility for preserving it could be a critical common ground between science and religion, he believes.
"It's a quixotic idea that if we can bring the two most powerful forces together in common purpose, we just might actually get the job done."
Wilson says he can speak to both audiences, because he is a secular humanist who was raised a Southern Baptist.
Karl Giberson is editor-in-chief of Science and Spirit magazine, a publication that seeks to facilitate a dialogue between scientific and religious communities.
Giberson says he is skeptical that Wilson will be successful in convincing U.S. religious organizations, the majority of which are conservative, to listen to his plea.
"I applaud his initiative," Giberson said.
"[But] E. O. Wilson is a very prominent figure in the [human] origins debate. That huge conservative groundswell that wants creationism in the schools sees E. O. Wilson as one of the most prominent enemies they have."
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