Strayer and co-author Frank Drews, assistant professor or psychology, published their findings in this winter's issue of the journal Human Factors.
Hands-Free Units Not Much Help
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Strayer and his group employed only hands-free phones for testing. Some states, including New York and New Jersey, have enacted safety legislation that restricts drivers to hands-free mobile phone use. But many researchers say the laws aren't enoughand may be completely useless.
"We have research that concludes that the use of a phone, whether handheld or hands-free, can have [the same negative] impact," said Rae Tyson, spokesman for the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
In fact, NHTSA studies at the University of Iowa suggested that in some cases, hands-free devices could pose a greater risk, because tasks like dialing can be more difficult and take longer.
The University of Utah team's research delivered similar results.
"The distinction some laws make between hands-free and regular phones doesn't stand up to scientific scrutiny," Strayer explained. "We've done studies, and other studies in Sweden and Australia have all come to the same conclusion: that it's a very similar signature of impairment."
The distracting effects of cell phones are attributed largely to the conversations themselves, which draw a driver's attention away from the road. The effect is dubbed inattention blindness.
"Not to say that dialing isn't a problem, but you can probably develop work-arounds where your hands are off the wheel for a limited amount of time," Strayer said. "Drivers engage in multitasks, like eating a sandwich or tuning the radio, when they perceive a lull in traffic and think it's safer. People are not too bad at judging those lulls if it's a relatively short activity."
But the context of phone conversation seems to big a distraction for most motorists.
"We used an eye tracker to try to see what they were looking at while talking on the phone," Strayer said. "The measurements show that they simply aren't picking up information that's right in front of them, whether it's as mundane as a street sign or even a person or child on the side of road."
Interestingly subjects in earlier studies displayed no similar distractions when talking to passengers, or listening to the radio or books on tape. The NHTSA believes that driver distractions of all types are a factor in probably 25 to 30 percent of crashes, but more specific data are unavailable.
"Our findings and those of others are that driving performance can be compromised by using wireless communication devices," Tyson said. "In general there is certainly the potential for deterioration of driving skills if you are talking and driving at the same timebut nobody knows precisely what the impact of cell phones has been."
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