The chimps use one particular tree speciesThomandersia hensiito fashion their puncturing sticks and an herbSarcophrynium spp.for their fishing probes.
The preference for these trees suggests that chimps not only know which raw materials are best suited for each task but also travel to seek them. The chimps arrive at the termite nests with the appropriate tools in hand, said co-author Dave Morgan, a conservationist with Cambridge University in the U.K. and the Bronx-based Wildlife Conservation Society in New York.
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Termite fishing is much tougher than one might think, said co-author Crickette Sanz, an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. Sanz and Morgan both tried fishing for the insects.
After cracking through the sunbaked mounds or subterranean chambers with twigs or sticks, fashioning a good fishing probe is a challenge. The chimps even use special techniques for pulling the aggressive soldier termites off the end of the probe. "We were less successful than most of the [chimp] youngstersthis is a complex skill that is developed with years of practice," Sanz said.
The video showed infants watching closely as mother chimps skillfully extract sticks swarming with large, shiny black termites. Through these social interactions, tool-using behaviors and techniques are passed from one individual to the nextwhat many scientists believe to be the hallmark of culture.
The research was funded in large part by the National Geographic Society's Expeditions Council and the Wildlife Conservation Society.
New Technology Better for Chimps
Both the findings and the methods used to conduct the research are novel, said Agustin Fuentes, an anthropologist and primatologist at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, who reviewed the research. "This is the first time we have seen chimps using multiple tools for a single task," he said.
The other noteworthy feature is the technologymotion-triggered camerasSanz and Morgan used to spy on the chimps at six termite mounds.
"The videos are very impressive121 examples of chimps using more than one tool at termite mounds. These chimps are in one of the most remote rain forests in the world. No one has ever viewed them so closelythe results are very exciting and very new," Wright said.
At other study sites in Africa, like Jane Goodall's famed Gombe site, the chimps are habituated to humans. "At Gombe, there are at least one or two people who follow the chimps around their entire lives. So that's got to have some sort of impact," Fuentes said. "Sanz and Morgan used video analysis to minimize the impact on the chimps and bypass the habituation."
But as the cameras were watching the chimps, the chimps were also inspecting the cameras. Many of the apes stopped in their tracks when they first saw the camera unitsbut the responses were very different between individuals. Some immediately retreated. Others walked right up to the camera and peered into the lens.
Close Encounters With a Camera
One infant gained a little more courage with each visit to the nest. The first time he saw the camera, he approached and looked into the lens. The second time, he sat in front of the camera and tried to press his finger through the glass. On his third visit, he tried to insert a puncturing tool into the lens.
"We were very humored and a bit worried during his last visit, when he brought another infant to inspect the camera," Sanz said.
The cameras were the brainchild of electrical engineer Steve Gulick, director of Wildland Security, a Brooklyn-based organization that develops antipoaching technology. Gulick often lends his talents to conservation projects.
When Gulick heard what Sanz and Morgan wanted to study, he rigged up a single camera near a termite mound. The camera worked well, and five additional cameras were fixed within a 100-square-kilometer (40-square-mile) radius.
The study reinforces the notion that tool use began long before humans walked the planet. Humans, chimps, and orangutans all used wood and bone tools, suggesting that tool use originated with a common ancestor more than 12 million years ago, Fuentes said.
The researchers are expanding their camera array to more chimp communities to observe differences in tool use.
There is tremendous pressure to document these chimpanzee cultures quickly. The animals are endangered by a burgeoning trade in their meat and outbreaks of viruses such as Ebola. The forests in which they reside are threatened by logging interests.
"Humans are extraordinary tool users. Examining these behaviors in our closest living relatives provides insights into the material culture and social traditions of our species," Sanz said. "As these forests vanish so do our opportunities to document the unique cultures that reside within them. We are quickly losing these apes that we hardly know."
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