"The results were staggering," Freudenberger said.
The cost-benefit analysis showed that without the train, the environmentally friendly agricultural system would be in jeopardy, placing the incomes of the people who live along the track at risk. Within 20 years at least 250,000 acres (100,000 hectares) of pristine forest would be cut and burned to make room for rice plantations.
"People can't eat coffee nor live on bananas," Freudenberger said. "What was clear was that [if the train disappeared] people would cut the perennial tree crops grown now and go to slash-and-burn cropping."
Conservationists say rampant slash-and-burn cropping, known in Madagascar as tavy, is partly to blame for the rapid loss of biodiversity on the island nation. Madagascar harbors thousands of plants and animals found nowhere else in the world.
The FCE railroad plies a corridor of intact forest that allows animals to migrate between the Ranomafana National Park to the north and the Andringitra National Park to the south. Tavy would destroy the corridor, Freudenberger said, posing a serious threat to the parks.
"What Karen and [her husband] Mark have done and shown quite well is we cannot afford not to rehabilitate the FCE," Barrett said.
For biodiversity conservation to rely on a transportation corridor is unusual, Barrett added. Environmentalists working in the Amazon and other humid tropical forests regularly deplore new road construction, because the corridors provide easier access to the forest and thereby often accelerate deforestation.
Armed with the results of the cost-benefit analysis, Freudenberger rallied the local people and international lenders to launch the FCE Railroad Rehabilitation Project, a fund-raising effort that she describes a "classic, stone-soup fairytale."
It began with a U.S. $1,000 check written by a former Madagascar project director who had moved to a post in Senegal and heard news of the cyclones. With this money, an army of men was hired at the prevailing rate of a dollar a day to begin digging out the railroad.
A few days later a friend sent another thousand dollars, which allowed the digging to continue. Then the United Methodist Committee for Relief caught wind of the struggle and sent $10,000 to the cause, which allowed the purchases of shovels, fuel for a bulldozer, and larger crews.
The $10,000 donation was followed by the release of $362,000 from an ongoing USAID-funded conservation and development project in the region.
"That's the amount we initially had just to open the railroad, to move the dirt on the tracks to the side of the tracks and get the railroad open," Freudenberger said. "We were able to run by the first of Juneat five kilometers [three miles] per hour in some parts, but getting throughand that meant the livelihood of the people on the line was assured."
These initial donations rallied the communities along the railway. They also allowed Freudenberger and her colleagues to approach international lending agencies like the World Bank and USAID for serious help.
After receiving 4.7 million dollars in cyclone relief funds from the U.S. government, the project is now working with a consortium of donors. In addition to the U.S. government, donors include the World Bank, the European Union, and Government of Madagascar Debt Relief Funds. The plan is to implement a $13 million overhaul of the FCE Railway.
Today the track is cleared and the train running. Within three years Freudenberger expects the project to be completethe track outfitted with new drainage systems and slopes stabilized with vetiver, a hardy plant with unique soil-stabilization properties.
"The FCE's future is now secure, but it really started with a thousand dollars," she said.
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