Ancient Olympians came from the upper social strata in Greece, since wealthy families could feed their children more protein-rich legumes and meats to build muscle.
The earliest records point to a cheese- and fruit-based diet for the first Olympic athletes, but somewhere along the line, dietary emphasis shifted to meat, Grivetti said.
While much of what's known about the diet of ancient Olympians comes from other sources, the Deipnosophists tells the tale of the wrestler Milon of Croton, who won competitions at six different Olympics:
Milon of Croton used to eat 20 pounds [9 kilograms] of meat and as many of bread, and he drank three pitchers of wine. And at Olympia he put a four-year-old bull on his shoulders and carried it around the stadium; after which, he cut it up and ate it all alone in a single day.
Theodorus of Hierapolis, On Athletic Contests, cited by Athenaeus in The Deipnosophists
According to food historian Francine Segan, an ancient Olympic runner won several competitions while following a meat-only diet. "This started a meat-only craze," Segan said, noting that other diet tips for athletes included avoiding bread right before competition and eating dried figs.
Segan studied The Deopnosophists and other ancient texts while researching her latest cookbook, The Philosopher's Kitchen, published this month by Random House.
The food historian said she became interested in ancient Mediterranean foods while researching an earlier cookbook that recreated the food of Shakespeare's time. "During the Renaissance people were trying to rediscover the ancients," she said. "So I thought, Let's go back to the source."
Segan said one of the surprising things she learned while researching her latest book was that many common foods of today, like corn, chocolate, and vanilla, are products of the New World.
Dishes in The Philosopher's Kitchen recreate cuisine from ingredients ancient cultures had available. For example, Segan's recipe for tart cherry lasagna reflects what was available in ancient Greece. While tomatoes might seem like a Mediterranean tradition, they became incorporated into the cuisine much later, she said.
Today's Olympic Feast
The cuisine served to athletes, coaches, and officials participating in the Athens 2004 Olympic Games will be international in flavor, with restaurants serving everything from Brazilian fish stew to Asian-inspired stir-fried vegetables. But the 6,000-seat main Olympic dining hall will also highlight Greek dishes such as halva, baklava, and spanakopita.
Aramark, a U.S.-based company which is running 2004 Olympics food operations in partnership with the Greek company Dasko, plans to use nearly 3,000 gallons (11,000 liters) of olive oilchalkidike, a peppery olive oil from northern Greece; and kalamata, a light, fruity olive oil from southern Greece.
Greek cheeses will also feature prominently on the menu. Fifty-two thousand pounds (24,000 kilograms) of cheese, including feta, kasseri, and houlimi, have been ordered for Olympic feasting. Greek farmers and ranchers will provide most of the vegetables, meats, and fruits consumed at the Olympic Village.
For more Olympic news, scroll down.
SOURCES AND RELATED WEB SITES